Monthly Archives: October 2012

The Epidemiology of Alzheimer’s Disease

Povova and colleagues have a paper in the journal ‘Biomedical Papers’ titled ‘Epidemiology of and Risk Factors for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Review’ which is freely available here. I found the paper interesting for the coverage of two areas

1. Prevalence and incidence rates. The authors have gathered data from numerous studies. Prevalence data will vary according to the study methodology and the characteristics of the target population. The authors refer to a 2005 Delphi Study published in the Lancet with an estimated prevalence globally of 3.9% in people over 60 years of age. However the prevalence varies considerably between countries. For the incidence of Dementia, the authors look at a number of prospective studies and express the findings in 1000 person-years. From the data it is clear that the sampling method is critical for the interpretation of the results. Although two studies may calculate the incidence of Alzheimer’s Disease in people over the age of 65 the average age of the sampled population as well as many other variables are critical in generalising these findings to other populations. Nevertheless regardless of the methodology, with figures ranging from 6.3 to 86.7 per 1000 person years it is clear that there is a significant disease burden in the sampled populations.

2. Prevention. The authors look at prevention focusing on primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies highlighting the role that medication, diagnosis and modifiable risk factors play in prevention.

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Does This Bonobo Have A Theory of Mind?

He who understands baboons would do more towards metaphysics than Locke” – Charles Darwin

The theory of mind is the ability to understand that you have a mental state as do others and that the mental state of others may differ from yours.  The mental state may include beliefs, feelings and other attributes of our inner world. The theory of mind has been described as a special feature of humans but there is a lot of debate about other species. For instance Dolphins and Chimpanzees are notable examples of species that are suggested to have a theory of mind although the arguments are extended to many other species.

I took the video above at Twycross Zoo and thought it rather interesting for a particular segment at 0.16-0.31. During this sequence the senior maternal Bonobo makes a number of rapid non-verbal gestures towards the infant Bonobo. These consist of gazing upwards, accentuated blinking, indicating with the head and holding and pushing with the right arm. The maternal Bonobo seems to be indicating to the infant to turn around and look in a certain direction. The direction is indicated by the maternal Bonobos gaze and when the infant Bonobo does not look in this direction, the firm holding arm of the maternal Bonobo pushes the infant to face in that direction.

This at least is my interpretation. If it is correct then it implies that the maternal Bonobo recognises the infant is not looking in the right direction. This in turn implies an inference about the visual perception of the infant. The sceptic may disagree with my interpretation and I accept that it is limited to a behavioural observation.

However if it were correct there would be two interesting points about this

1. This demonstrates the use of several non-verbal means of communication in an apparently goal directed behaviour. These gestures may have been important for the development of a theory of mind which has been so central to the success of the human race.

2. Bonobos are our second closest relatives. They are also referred to as Pygmy Chimpanzees and have branched off from the lineage of Chimpanzees. Furthermore our lineage diverged from Chimpanzees around 6 million years ago. There are vastly different estimates for this figure which tend to be modified by new estimates of genetic mutation rates and genome sequencing data. What is rather unfortunate however is that every other species that has branched off from our lineage after Chimpanzees (i.e in the past roughly 6 million years) is now extinct. This means that from an evolutionary perspective Bonobos and Chimpanzees are our nearest surviving relatives and provide us with valuable insights into our history.

In the above quote from Darwin, i’m sure he might have been equally fascinated by Bonobos which were first described in 1928 and are classed as Greater Apes.

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 4

 

Figure showing the insular cortex (circled) in a coronal section indicated by the blue line in the inset, Modified from Original Image by John Beal PhD, Dep’t. of Cellular Biology & Anatomy, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport, CC-BY

This is the fourth part of a series looking at building a model of the Insular Cortex, part of the brain that is thought to play an important role in emotions and awareness. ‘In the 2009 paper ‘How Do You Feel Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness‘ Craig outlines an elegant model of the Insular Cortex which integrates neurophysiological findings. In developing the current model, I thought Craig’s model of the Insular Cortex would be a useful starting point for refining the model covered in Part 1 (see Appendix)’*.

Craig has done a lot of work in sensory neurophysiology and uses this as the basis for his model. Reflecting on Craig’s review, I note that it is complex and incorporates reviews of a large number of fMRI studies investigating a vast array of psychological phenomenon. Craig notes that the Insular Cortex is activated throughout many studies investigating disparate phenomenon. Most of the studies considered involve interoception – the awareness of a person’s own body. This includes temperature, movement and body position. Noting the activation throughout such studies Craig draws the conclusion that the Insular Cortex is involved in awareness and has in his work explicitly suggested that the Insular Cortex is a location for consciousness.

Craig’s suggestion is an interesting one. I would propose that consciousness is modular – that is that our conscious experience arises from widely distributed neurophysiological activity in the brain. Furthermore different qualia of conscious experience are physiologically grounded in correlated neuroanatomical regions. For visual consciousness there is the visual cortex and associated areas, for auditory consciousness there is the auditory cortex and so on. Craig’s proposal here is what I would refer to as a top level concept. In a top down hierarchy of concepts – the key concepts that give an overview of the subject area and inform that structure would be at the top of the structure. In building a model it is useful to start off with this approach. The top level concept therefore is that the Anterior Insular Cortex is a key brain area for ‘awareness’ and ‘consciousness’ as it is activated in numerous studies investigating various phenomenon. Other aspects of Craig’s review would then allow the other aspects of this model to be clarified with neurophysiological correlates.

In considering Craig’s model however it is useful to explore alternatives as this helps to shape the model using the theme of the Hegelian Dialectical. In the first instance the suggestion that the Insular Cortex is activated in many fMRI studies does not necessarily imply that it is an important region for awareness. This activation could be an artefact of fMRI methodology. In this regards the authors of one review have suggested that the Insular Cortex plays an important role in processing vestibular inputs. For example this includes the experience of self-motion. In fMRI studies, it has frequently been noted that research participants undergoing fMRI will experience vertigo. Furthermore there is evidence to suggest that the magnetic field inside the MRI scanner stimulates the vestibular apparatus.

Therefore one alternative hypothesis is that the Insular Cortex is frequently activated in fMRI studies as an artefact due to magnetic field stimulation of the human vestibular apparatus with subsequent processing of the sensory input into the Insular Cortex. Although this is unlikely to be the case, consideration of this alternative hypothesis will help to refine the original hypothesis and hopefully make it more robust.

Insular Cortex Resources on this Site

What does the Insular Cortex Do Again?

Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke

The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation Part 1 Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex: A Recap

The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions

Pathobiology of Visceral Pain

Interoception and the Insular Cortex

A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion

Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex

MR Visualisations of the Insula

The Subjective Experience of Pain

How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body

How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness

Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain

The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia

A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart

The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?

Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex

YouTubing the Insular Cortex (Brodmann Areas 13, 14 and 52)

New Version of Video on Insular Cortex Uploaded

*Text taken from Part 3.

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Detailed Report on Dementia in Australia Published News Roundup: October 2012 4th Edition

A new report ‘Dementia in Australia‘ has been published under a Creative Commons License 3.0. The report is very detailed and provides information and discussion which is relevant to other countries also. The authors of the report predict that within the next 40 years the prevalence of Dementia will have increased three-fold.

An estimated 298,000 Australians had dementia in 2011, of whom 62% were women, 74% were aged 75 and over, and 70% lived in the community. Dementia poses a substantial challenge to health, aged care and social policy. Based on projections of population ageing and growth, the number of people with dementia will reach almost 400,000 by 2020. Although projection methods vary, the number of people with dementia is projected to triple between 2011 and 2050, to reach around 900,000 by 2050. Dementia is a leading cause of death, accounting for 6% of all deaths in 2010. Total direct health and aged care services expenditure on people with dementia was at least $4.9 billion in 2009–10

They further report that

People with dementia aged 65 and over had a substantially higher average number of health conditions than all people in this age group (5.4 and 2.9 respectively).
• The majority (88%) of people with dementia in private dwellings lived with others; men (93%) were more likely than women (84%) to do so.
• Among people living in the community, those with dementia were most likely to need help with health care (84%), mobility (80%) and private transport (80%). For those in cared accommodation, 99% required help with health care, 98% with self-care activities, and 91% with cognitive or emotional tasks.
• Three-quarters (75%) of people with dementia made use of a combination of formal and informal assistance to obtain help in the areas for which they needed assistance, while 22% relied solely on informal assistance.
• Among permanent residents in residential aged care, those with dementia were more likely than those without dementia to need high care (87% versus 63%), and to have higher care needs in relation to activities of daily living and behaviour, but not in relation to complex health care. The majority of residents with dementia had a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease, with the proportion higher in women (79%) than men (67%)

The report also includes other types of demographic data that help to build up a profile of people with Dementia.

There were many other pieces of useful clinical information including comorbid health conditions.

Hospitalisation figures were identified by age and graphed.

Hospitalisations were analysed according to Dementia subtype.

When Dementia was not the primary diagnosis but was present the principal diagnosis for hospitalisation was analysed as below

The authors found that there had been a decrease in the number of days that people with Dementia remained in hospital in 2009-2010 compared to 2004-2005

‘The average stay for hospitalisations with dementia as the principal diagnosis decreased from 25 days in 2004–05 to 18 days in 2009–10

The prescription data for medication for Dementia was also analysed

The authors of the report also looked at the needs of people with Dementia when they were provided with care packages. There are three types of care packages described in the table below with increasing levels of support – Community Aged Care Packages (CACPs), Extended Aged Care at Home (EACH) and Extended Aged Care at Home Dementia (EACHD).

The estimated economic costs of Dementia care were also analysed

There is a PLOS One study (n=59) which looks at male DNA in female brains post-mortem and produced some curious results. The researchers found evidence of male DNA in the brains. There were 26 women without neurological disease and 33 women with Alzheimer’s Disease. The researchers used a marker for the gene DYS14 and in one case examined for male cells (which were found). The researchers found evidence of male DNA in many of the brains. They hypothesised that this originated from male foetuses and found evidence to support this hypothesis with a secondary analysis. The researchers found a reduced prevalence and concentration of male DNA in the brains of people who had received a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease. These are interesting findings and it will be useful to see the results of further replication studies.

Kwik Med have compiled a list of Autism blogs here.

Neuroscience

In a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, one research group looked at the facial recognition area in the Fusiform Gyrus. They found that this area didn’t just respond to faces but also automobiles. The study supports the hypothesis that this region is not specialised for faces alone.

Evolutionary Psychiatry

A transfer of technology from one area to another has been suggested for analysing human remains and  may have an application in understanding the evolution of walking.  The software is used in geological analysis and helps researchers to understand if features of a landscape are clustered non-randomly in an area. The proposal suggests that this software can be used to examine the internal structure of bone and to make inferences about the way that bone has developed and the stresses that have been applied to the bone. This is interesting for another reason as there have been other proposals for transferring geographical information system technology to the medical domain. The video below illustrates the potential for application of this technology in public health.

Suggest for Potential Application of Open Source Geographical Information Systems to Public Health

Appendix

News Round-Up 2008-2011

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

A Short Documentary on Dementia in Hospital

The Royal College of Psychiatrists has put a video up on their YouTube Channel on Dementia in hospitals. The video was made by Cheshire and Wirral Partnership NHS Foundation Trust (CWPNFT) in conjunction with Mocha Film and includes interviews with professionals and carers. The video is very informative and helps the audience to understand the perspective of a person with Dementia coming into a hospital environment. Dr Dave Anderson, Consultant in Old Age Psychiatry also explains the importance of recognising Delirium in a person with Dementia in the hospital environment.

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Doing Science Using Open Data – Part 3: Census Data and Open Software

In the second part in the series, I examined UK mortality data to generate H1

H1: In the UK, deaths in the age group 45-64 years of age are 4 times higher than deaths in the age group 15-44 years of age.

In order to test this hypothesis further we need to learn a bit more about the population as a whole. The finding in the previous post in this series was based on the eight weeks worth of data. There are various reasons why this may be a transient finding. There may be a seasonal variation in figures or else this cohort may differ considerably from the age-equivalent cohort in one year’s time.

Before investigating this further I will return to the issue of how to analyse the data. In the first part of this series I referenced Microsoft Excel. I’ve found this to be very useful but some readers may not have access to this. There is an open source alternative – Open Office Calc. Apache ‘Open Office‘ is described as ‘The Free and Open Productivity Suite’. In order to get started with the Open Office alternative to Excel follow these instructions

1. Go to the Apache Open Office Download Page

2. Download the Apache Open Office package (versions are available for several operating systems)

3. Install the package

4. Start up Apache Open Office Calc

If you’re familiar with other spreadsheets then it shouldn’t be too difficult to get started. There is a drop-down menu for help. At the time of writing i’m using Apache Open Office 3.4.1 and will use Calc for the remainder of this post.

Returning to hypothesis 1 above we need to find out a bit more about the general population. Fortunately there is detailed Census Data available. We’re going to use the Mid 2011 Census results. To do this

1. Go to the Office for National Statistics Census 2011 page

2. Go to the page for population estimates for England and Wales for 2011

3. Download the Excel file for the ‘Annual Mid-Year Population Estimates for England and Wales, Mid 2011

4. Open this with Apache Open Office Calc

The results are just for England and Wales. The Scotland 2011 Census results are due out in December 2012 and will be published in 5 year age groups. The Northern Ireland 2011 Census results are available here. Looking at the data for England and Wales, there is a cut-off at age 89 and further data above this age is due to be published. Selecting the data for all ages including male and female figures graphed against population (using an X-Y Scatter) gives the following result.

 

A cursory examination of the graph reveals that there are more males than females for every age under 25. Once we reach the mid-forties this is reversed. Indeed there is an increase excess of women over men from the mid-seventies onwards. This may be consistent with numerous studies showing increased life expectancy for women although we would need more information to draw conclusions in this regards. We can also see that the population for each group peaks in the mid-forties. This is relevant to the hypothesis H1. Indeed hypothesis H2 states that the increase in mortality in moving from age group 16-44 to 45-65 may be accounted for by a larger population in the latter group.

We can test this hypothesis for the England and Wales population directly. Returning to the census data and summing the male and female figures we get the following results for ages 16 through to 44

680,979
706,234
711,491
741,667
765,895
757,901
757,295
771,297
756,449
768,415
774,921
759,889
768,860
770,810
778,986
782,510
751,251
700,825
690,775
702,024
716,419
729,013
761,347
794,300
820,805
800,550
821,037
819,650
832,297

For ages 45-65 we get the following results

832,727
838,064
831,041
813,798
797,077
770,066
739,859
723,861
708,371
682,824
659,795
637,073
641,145
634,399
618,132
623,508
638,118
655,668
694,644
754,834
583,734

The total estimated population in England and Wales in Mid-2011 for the age group 16-44 is

21993892

and for the age group 45-65 is

15711035

Hypothesis 2 states that the increase in mortality moving from the first to the second age group might be accounted for by an increase in the population in the second group. However the data above for England and Wales shows that there is a reduction in the overall population in moving from the first to the second group. Indeed the second group is only 71% of the size of the former group. Nevertheless the data is incomplete as the mortality data applies to the UK and the census figures apply only to England and Wales. When the other census data becomes available it will be possible to revisit hypothesis 2 and test it more convincingly.

Using the above data what implications are there for hypothesis 1? Suppose the findings from other parts of the UK are consistent with the England and Wales census data. This would imply that on moving from the age group 16-44 to 45-65 the mortality per 100,000 would increase 4 x 1/0.71 = 5.6 fold (2 sf).

However we can start to perform other statistical tests on the data.

Appendix

Doing Science Using Open Data – Part 1

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Integration in Neuroscience: A Core Problem – Part 3

In the last post in the series (see Appendix) I looked at the concept of ‘replicability’ of a word. If two people use the same word and are independently able to convincingly verify the word through measurement in the external world then this word will have a replicability of 1. I gave the example of a ‘centimetre’. I also discussed the limits of words and suggested that our inner experiences highlight the limitations of words. Ironically the words that we use are a product of our inner experiences. In order for language to be useful we assume a shared understanding of the words we use. Even within the last sentence, I have used a number of words such as ‘understanding’ and ‘assume’ in the assumption that the reader will readily understand these words in the same way that I do. Without these assumptions, this shared understanding language would be reduced to an unambiguous structure such as symbolic notation (e.g mathematics).

Programming languages are an excellent example. With such a language, the programmer will not use any ambiguity. The computer having no consciousness, no shared understanding – it must be instructed explicitly at each and every step. As time progresses computer languages become more sophisticated and these small explicit steps are nested inside words or structures being thus one step removed from the programmer but still present and implied in the usage of the new terms. We may also infer that in natural language usage, circumstantiality may be a similar attempt to make the meaning of words explicit. In such cases of natural language usage however it may give us useful clues into theory of mind. When there are difficulties with theory of mind perhaps in some cases there is a tendency to make explicit the meaning of words which may be seen as circumstantiality. The formal use of language may be an additional example of natural language usage where steps are taken to reduce perceived ambiguity in shared understanding. In this case, strict adherence to grammatical rules in all situations may be meant as an attempt to reduce ambiguity even when others would use informal language.

In recent studies by Gallant and Kasanti the researchers convincingly interpreted the neurophysiological correlates of inner experiences in a way which causes us to redefine ‘replicability’. Some might ask why Gallant et al’s study is any different from recording of retinal activity. However when the researchers in Gallant’s study recorded from areas V1-V3 in the Occipital Cortex they were recording from the brain, the location of conscious experience. By so doing they were in a way similar to the work of Penfield beginning to localise distinct phenomenological experiences. However their work was extremely elegant, allowing them to reverse engineer video footage that was seen by the research participants. By looking at the video below, the reader will i’m sure be convinced that they had achieved this result. I remarked at the time that the researchers had done away with the need for statistical analyses of the results as the audience could confirm their results by simply inspecting the footage.

Reconstruction of Video Images in Gallant’s Lab

Video Reconstructions of Clips Presented to 3 Subjects. The average of the best-fit clips is on the left, while those on the right are the best fit clips. Each row represents a single subject.

Gallant’s study makes the concept of the reproducibility of a word redundant. The researchers and participants knowing the methodology beforehand would not have to speak a single word to each other from the start to the end. The participants watch the footage, the brain activity is recorded, the software analyses the results and incorporates the data into a sophisticated model which is then used to reverse engineer the final footage that is presented. The study can be language independent. In this case the researchers and the subjects know that they are examining inner experiences. The researchers are able to use sensory experience – their vision – to visually inspect the final footage viewed by the research subjects and the reconstructed footage.

We can therefore return to the original question posed in the previous post ‘how can two people be certain that they are sharing the same meaning of a word’. For the word centimetre it just involves measuring and drawing a centimetre and comparing the results. For visual phenomenon when confined to words we are in a little bit of a difficult situation. This can be circumnavigated with the use of visual field testing and other similar methods. With Gallant’s study however two people may have a means to verify part of their visual experience of watching a movie. More importantly however those people can describe part of each other’s neurophysiology by means of a language independent comparison of video clips. The replicability is therefore the use of an external aid in conjunction with sensory processing of that external aid to enable two people to independently confirm the same fact relating to the neurophysiology of the brain.

Unfortunately there is a twist at the end as what I would like to say is that they could independently confirm the same fact relating to the conscious experience of the other person. After all that is what is effectively happening when we use language. Alas there is a final obstacle thrown in the way. The predictive value of the brain recording in Gallant’s study still does not tell us if it is conscious experience. The conversion of inner phenomenological experience into a physical correlate that is reproducible is still beyond our grasp. The mind/brain dichotomy remains.

Related Resources on the TAWOP Site

Integration in Neuroscience: A Core Problem – Part 1

Integration in Neuroscience: A Core Problem – Part 2

In Support of Method

A Review of the Structure of Scientific Revolutions

An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 1

An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 2

An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 3

An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 4

An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 5

An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 6

An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 7 – A Discussion of the Anomaly and Beyond

Do We Need A Crisis in Science For A Revolution to Occur? – An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 8

What is the Effect of a Scientific Crisis in Neuroscience? An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 9

Has Neuroscience Been Undergoing a Limited Political Revolution Rather Than A Scientific Revolution? An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 10

Is Neuroscience a Collection of Neuroscience Memes?: An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 11

What Would An Accurate Historical Narrative of Neuroscience Look Like? An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 12

Is Criticism Within Neuroscience Sufficient for a Revolution? An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 13

Is A Historical Narrative Central to the Development of Neuroscience? An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 14

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.