Monthly Archives: November 2012

Passage of the UK Mental Health (Discrimination) Bill News Roundup: November 2012 4th Edition

There is an update on the passage of the UK Mental Health (Discrimination) Bill in the House of Commons.

One research group in Scotland is piloting a drama based program which portrays the experience of people with young-onset dementia. The vignettes will be available for other researchers.

A recent report has supported the use of the citizen science where volunteers participate in running research trials. There is more here.

One Canadian study by Oh and colleagues showed a benefit for exercise in people following a stroke. 41 study participants underwent a 6 month exercise program and scores were found to improve after training. However it would be interesting to see the results of a larger replication study with a comparator arm in the study.

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury is associated with changes in the activity in the brain’s default mode network in this study.

An American study has looked at the effects of sedentary behaviour and walking on cognition in people with Alzheimer’s Disease. The researchers found evidence of a decline in cognition in people who did not engage in exercise compared to those engaged in over 2 hours of walking per week.

In one study researchers investigated factors that delayed progression to Alzheimer’s Disease in carriers of the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele. They found that an absence of vascular risk factors, educational level and leisure activities all contributed to a delay in progression. This was a large cohort (n-932) followed up over 9 years.

Neuroscience

One recent study published in Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics showed evidence that a visual prosthesis enabled subjects in the study to read visual braille. Essentially a camera and software setup was used to convert text into a visual form of braille. This information was then fed through to a neural prosthesis that enabled the person to interpret the visual braille.

The neural cell community have created a resource for collating research and review papers in their field which may be of interest to other communities.

In this Magnetoencephalography study, researchers found that a slowing of resting state brain activity was correlated with the development of cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s Disease offering the prospect of a biomarker although further research is needed.

 

Open Science

There is a list of online educational tools for science here.

Frank Spencer has made his reading list of 10,000 books available here. The books are neuroscience and philosophy focused.

There is a very interesting diagram on this page displaying the results of a study investigating the relationship between journals in terms of where articles were submitted to. If an article was not published but instead resubmitted to another journal the relationship between the two was noted. The cumulative total of such links over a large sample set enabled the researchers to display a complex network of Journals. High impact Journals and Journals in related fields showed strong connections to each other.

Evolutionary Psychiatry

The remains of a 10,000 year old settlement reveal life in Scotland at that time and give insights into the evolution of culture.

Appendix

News Round-Up 2008-2011

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

New Video on the Hippocampus

I’ve just uploaded a creative commons video of the Hippocampus. The data was derived from the Japanese Life Science Database and the video was originally sourced from Wikimedia Commmons and i’ve added a soundtrack.
Feel free to remix the video if you have a YouTube account.

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Doing Science Using Open Data – Part 6: Modelling Populations

In this 6th part of the series on using open data for science I’ve take a slight diversion to look at populations and the issue of sampling. This was prompted by a look at the UK mid-2011 Census data shown in the graph below.

Figure 1: Summation of male and female figures for each age from mid-2011 Census. Red bars represent the age group 45-65 and the blue bars represent the age group 16-44

What were going to do is look at the UK population and build a mathematical population and build a model for the populations we’ve looked at in the previous posts. Just to recap, when we compared two populations there are a number of statistical methods for doing this which are dependent on the characteristics of the population. For a normally distribution population we can define this population by the mean and standard deviation. As discussed in previous posts the populations in this post from the census study in mid 2011 which are not normally distributed. In the first segment aged 16-44 there is a somewhat homogenous group?? whilst in the group 45-65 there is a right skewed distribution that is the numbers for each year get progressively smaller.

In the third part in this series I included some of the data from the mid-2011 Census which I will reproduce here to support the subsequent discussion. Summing the male and female figures we get the following results for ages 16 through to 44

680,979
706,234
711,491
741,667
765,895
757,901
757,295
771,297
756,449
768,415
774,921
759,889
768,860
770,810
778,986
782,510
751,251
700,825
690,775
702,024
716,419
729,013
761,347
794,300
820,805
800,550
821,037
819,650
832,297

For ages 45-65 we get the following results

832,727
838,064
831,041
813,798
797,077
770,066
739,859
723,861
708,371
682,824
659,795
637,073
641,145
634,399
618,132
623,508
638,118
655,668
694,644
754,834
583,734

The total estimated population in England and Wales in Mid-2011 for the age group 16-44 is

21993892

and for the age group 45-65 is

15711035

So if we move firstly to the population aged 45-65. This population has a value that begins with 832,727 people aged 45 and decreases to 583,734 at age 65 . First recall that the x-axis represents age and the y-axis is the number of people in each age group. The population can be approximately described by a line of decreasing slope.  Now if we’re going to model this we’re going to need to understand what the relationship is between x and y. Quite obviously as x increases y decreases and the relationship is described by y = -x. Looking at the graph above this doesn’t seem intuitive. None of the y values are negative. However if the graph began at (0,0) then it would become negative as x increased. The reason that this doesn’t happen in the above graph is that the line y = -x is translated in a positive direction along the y-axis. So in other words (I will take out the negative sign at this stage as it will be dealt with by the coefficient a)

y =  x + c

In addition to this, rather than a straight line with a unit gradient (i.e for every unit increase along the x-axis there is a unit increase along the y-axis) the line has a gradient which we have yet to determine. For the sake of convenience I will refer to this as

y =  a x + c

There is a simple introduction to lines and slopes below.

Our job now is to find out what those two variables a and c are. This is going to be an approximation. Turning first to people aged 45

y =  a x + c

832,727 =  44 a + c

and for the age 65

583,734 =  65 a + c

We have two equations that we have to solve and two sets of values to do this. Since

832727 = 44 a + c

44 a = 832727 – c

a = (832727-c)/44

Now from the original equations we know that

583,734 = 65 a + c

and therefore substituting

a = (832,727-c)/44

we get

583734 = 65/44 (832727-c) + c

Multiplying out we get

583734 =  (1 – 1.477)c + 1230164.89

- 646430.88636 = -0.477c

c = 1354426.6

Substituting back into the original equation

583,734 = 65 a + 1354426.6

Rearranging we get

(583,734 – 1354426.6)/65 = a

a = -11856.81

Substituting the values for a and c into the original equations above, the reader will be see that these values solve the equations. The numbers have been rounded up. Indeed rounding to the nearest number we arrive at the following equation

y = -11857 x + 1354427

This equation approximately describes the UK mid-2011 Census data for the age group 45-65 where y is the total population for each age and x is the age in years within the given range.

Appendix

Doing Science Using Open Data – Part 1

Doing Science Using Open Data – Part 2

Doing Science Using Open Data – Part 3

Doing Science Using Open Data – Part 4

Doing Science Using Open Data – Part 5

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Integration in Neuroscience: A Core Problem – Part 4: A Language for Mind and Brain?

How do we manage the reality of a different language of the mind and brain? This is more than just semantics as the two languages have been explored in fundamentally different ways and have resulted in entirely different branches of science. For the language of mind we have introspection, the analysis of language and the use of language in assessment tools. The language of brain is one primarily of physiology and as such the branches of science that attend to this are based on the sensory observations regardless of whether they are direct as in the case of neuroanatomy or indirectly as in the case of the many neurophysiological investigations such as electroencephalography of fMRI to name just a few.

Whilst there are many pieces of research which investigate the question of combining these two disciplines these are necessarily more difficult in their methodology and can be more ambiguous than either field alone. There are notable exceptions such as the recent investigation of dream sleep in which the predictive utility of the neurophysiological investigations was found sufficient to enable researchers to predict the actual content of the subjects dreams. This was not of the type seen in the Gallant study which was based on complex modelling although similarly remarkable in its achievements. Both of these studies go some way in showing that there can be a successful combination of these approaches although the Gallant study was not dependent on the subjects reporting of their inner experiences as it was visible and obvious from the moving images that were reverse engineered.

However such studies have not always been so successful and many studies investigating the same question will find opposing answers. So what is the solution? My answer in previous posts has been that we should address this by developing a language of the mind and brain and one which is sufficient to cross the narrative bridges that have arisen in different scientific communities. Such a language has to have a pragmatic utility and to arise from the scientific findings. Such a language would have to be intuitive to the clinician and the scientist alike. Perhaps such a language is not possible although there are considerable benefits if it were. However the language is not the complete answer as there is a much deeper problem.

That problem is what we expect when we undertake investigations into the mind or brain. This is a more fundamental question. The core feature in discussions of the mind is of course consciousness. For Freud consciousness and the unconscious mind were two extremely important aspects of psychoanalysis. Both are intuitively obvious to the general public – so much so that they hardly need any introduction. We know what it is to be consciously aware from moment to moment and we know what it is to be asleep or otherwise unconscious. What though is the ultimate goal of the researcher of the mind? Is it really to make a prediction about what a subject will be thinking in one or two minutes time or to understand the essence of relationships between people for example. I think here we are talking about an investigation of the mind independent  of the brain in which neurophysiological correlates are unimportant. In this case the researchers are trying to develop a model which is imperfect but encapsulates a property of the human mind. We may say that this is an aspect of consciousness. Consciousness is not something tangible, something that we can see or hear other than as a distortion through language. Consciousness is an inherent property of another person’s brain and mind which we infer through direct observations (e.g emotional expressions, posture and so on) or hear (e.g through the person’s discussion of their internal experiences).

In so doing there is a certain amount of negotiation that we must make in everyday life in order to understand the mind of another. The ultimate measure of internal experiences is epitomised by the psychometric assessment tool. If we wish to assess a certain characteristic of the person’s mind there are many tools to do so which are effective in doing this. But let us investigate a little further. Suppose we have a tool for happiness. The tool must go through exhaustive trials to validate it. We must be certain that the construct that is being examined is the construct we understand to be happiness. There are various methods to ensure this and I will not go into these here. Let us suppose that this stage has been passed. There are a set of tools to be administered by the rater or self administered. These questions are distilled down to the most essential so that the tool is pragmatic. There are various approaches to refining these questions and we may be certain that the remaining questions are the most effective for the job.

Let us for a moment investigate this question a little further. Let us assume that I describe myself as happy and I ask a question. The question is ‘are you happy?’. When responding to this question I must pause for a moment and consider the response and consider what is being said in the question. Suppose I am experiencing that happiness now. How do I get to responding that I am happy. There are several steps which we may overlook as they are intuitive and immediate. I will pause briefly to consider the question and understand it. Assuming that I have understood it which itself is composed of multiple steps I must then make a choice. This to me, this process of making a choice is qualitatively different from the process of being happy. I must move from the non-reflective state of being happy to the considered state of wanting to make a choice. Assuming that i’m now in a completely different state i must recall how I was a few moments previously before this state was interrupted. If I don’t I may be in a state that is more common to answering questions than a natural state. This may be associated with a slight anxiety as anyone taking an exam will know.

Let us suppose I must give my state of happiness a number from 0 to 10 and that each number has a description which helps me to better match it to my internal state. Now if I answer a 6 or a 7 and come back tommorrow and in a similar state of happiness answer a 4 or 5 we will see that there is a false reduction in the attempt to get to the final state which is a numerical correlate of the experience. Let us suppose on the other hand that it is a good tool and always consistent and that my state is – whatever this means – is always ‘5’. In other words let us assume that there is a perfect correlation between the number and my experience – a perfect numerical compartmentalisation of that experience. If that happiness were to increase by just a small amount it would be correlated with a small increase in the numerical score and that would be absolutely perfect in its relationship. This is a completely hypothetical example as it is such a difficult area and what we are trying to do is so artificial to some extent. When we consider a larger number of people the practical difficulties – the noise, the error – averages out and we get a better relationship.

Let us consider the tool on an individual basis. Suppose that I am answering the question about happiness. The experience of happiness could be subconcious in that i’m not consciously aware of it. I’m not focusing my attention on it from moment to moment but when I need to I can attend to this subconscious experience and create a numerical correlate. I am the instrument for this transition rather than the rater per se. Now I know that from moment to moment my thoughts vary. My thoughts might wander, I might simply be enjoying the scenery, I might be lost in a train of thought, I might be undertaking a complex piece of work but all the time I may be happy. This would be an emotional state. From the neurobiological perspective its entirely possible that while i’m doing all of these things I can be in a state of emotional happiness and its not too far fetched to suppose that the intensity of this emotional experience can vary from none at all through to extremely happy. In this simple example it is not too far fetched to suppose that my conscious experience can be correlated with a number in a meaningful way.

If I am happy this may also influence my thoughts on a continuous basis. I may experience happier thoughts, I may solve problems in a different way and so there is an opportunity for me to examine other qualitative aspects of my conscious experience without needing a numerical correlate. If my rating were zero and it was an accurate representation of my internal state then I might have few thoughts or my thoughts would be of a qualitatively different nature. Indeed if we think hard enough it is entirely possible to turn those qualitative aspects of conscious experience into quantitative components that correlate with my conscious experience.

Where do we go from here? We’ve assumed in the argument up until this point that a certain tool with the right questions will provide us with a simple measure of our internal experience and we have assumed that this is a perfect correlation – that it is a useful measure. What then do we do? I will argue that there are two things we are interested in. The first is providing an explanatory framework and the second is making a prediction. I will further suggest that when we look at physiological correlates we are doing exactly the same. In the clinical arena we are interested in whether people have one or another type of illness. We are interested in seeing if there is a response to treatment or if we should try another approach. So returning to the basic question of whether we have a neurophysiological correlate  of internal experience – what do we want it to do. I would say we want it to give us a measure of the severity of an internal state, a measure of the consistency of the internal state and we want it to provide us with an explanation and a prediction.

Returning to our example about happiness.  Let us suppose that I have identified the internal subjective state of happiness and assigned it a number 3 and i have obtained the physiological correlate and it is activation in a brain circuit which includes the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex. Suppose on the fMRI scan that I therefore have the pattern  on a 3T scanner – if I scan people over and again – and given the noise/error rate – I can suspect that there is a correlation between one and the other. I can infer one state from the other. If I know the score on the psychometric tool I can know the physiological correlate. Or if I see the fMRI scan result and assuming a 1:1 correlation between physiological state and conscious experience, I can then infer the conscious experience and the numerical correlate.

Even taking into consideration the problems with methodology which are covered elsewhere which show up the flaws in this idealised argument, the next problem is that the fMRI scan data is fairly limited in its remit. There have been many studies which have pointed to flaws in the methodology ranging from poor blood flow/neural activity correlates to blood flow time delay. So what we’re looking at are changes in blood flow and changes in the BOLD signal. But that doesn’t tell us much about conscious experience. We know that conscious experience is most likely to be due to neural activity. I may say without doubt that conscious is an epiphenomenon of neural activity. The next problem is that if we return to the fMRI study data that we’re looking at the changes in blood flow. We could have a large amount of neural activity with little change in blood flow or the reverse case and this area is still poorly understood. So matching one methodology with another still leaves us with a problem.

The discussion above illustrates a few points. An idealised argument helps us to frame our thoughts. However the deeper we examine questions the more we see how flawed such idealised arguments are. The discussion of language is an important one. Even more important however is the ultimate goal of our research questions and the realistic objectives of interdisciplinary working and model building.

Related Resources on the TAWOP Site

Integration in Neuroscience: A Core Problem – Part 1

Integration in Neuroscience: A Core Problem – Part 2

Integration in Neuroscience:A Core Problem – Part 3

In Support of Method

A Review of the Structure of Scientific Revolutions

An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 1

An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 2

An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 3

An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 4

An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 5

An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 6

An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 7 – A Discussion of the Anomaly and Beyond

Do We Need A Crisis in Science For A Revolution to Occur? – An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 8

What is the Effect of a Scientific Crisis in Neuroscience? An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 9

Has Neuroscience Been Undergoing a Limited Political Revolution Rather Than A Scientific Revolution? An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 10

Is Neuroscience a Collection of Neuroscience Memes?: An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 11

What Would An Accurate Historical Narrative of Neuroscience Look Like? An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 12

Is Criticism Within Neuroscience Sufficient for a Revolution? An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 13

Is A Historical Narrative Central to the Development of Neuroscience? An Interpretation of Scientific Revolutions – Part 14

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Working with PubMed – Part 1: Getting Started with a Shortcut

Figure 1 – Preferences Page in NCBI

 

This is the first in a series on using PubMed. PubMed is the gateway for several important biomedical databases including Medline. Being able to work with PubMed is a very useful skill in the life sciences. In the first part the reader will need to set up an account with the National Center for Biotechnology Information. I will assume that the reader has done this. The first lesson is very simple and focuses on preferences. As someone that uses PubMed frequently I find shortcuts really useful. The shortcut i’m going to discuss here is one used in searches. The first step is to go to the preferences page once you’re logged into your NCBI account. Then under PubMed Preferences click on ‘Result Display Settings’. Finally select abstract, 200 and Pub Date under preferences. Every time you log into your NCBI account and use this to access PubMed, these preferences will be used automatically.

So what does all this mean? Well firstly the ‘abstract’ preference simply means that all returned results will be displayed with the abstract. This enables you to get a quick overview of the paper without needing to click on a hypertext link to get to the abstract. The second preference ‘200’ means that each page will feature 200 results per page. The default is 20 which means you have to click 10 times to see all of the results. The only drawback is that you need appropriate resources on your computer to avoid a sluggish response. Finally the ‘Pub Date’ preferences means that the articles will be displayed in chronological order. This is especially useful if your interested in the most recent papers in the field.

So that’s the lesson – brief and simple and you’ll see the benefits after using the saved preferences on just a few occasions. Of course if your needs are different then you can just adjust the preferences accordingly.

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

A Postcard From the Neandertal Valley

Postcard Showing Reconstruction of a Neanderthal Man wearing Modern Clothing at the Neandertal Valley Neanderthal Museum, Permission to Display Image Granted by the Neanderthal Museum and Tim Skellet, Copyright Neanderthal Museum

I received a postcard from Tim Skellet who recently visited the Neanderthal Museum in the Neandertal Valley in Germany. This is where Professor Johann Fuhlrott first named the species Homo Neanderthalensis after examining the remains of the Neanderthal1 specimen discovered there. Johann Fuhlrott is considered to be the founder of palaeoanthropology. Neanderthals were a distinct species that are thought to have become extinct around 24,000 years ago but have passed on their DNA to modern human populations. Recent DNA analysis of Neanderthal remains has shown how they differed from modern humans but also the significant similarity we share.

Checkout Tim Skellet’s blog here where he is writing about his current trip to Tanzania.

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 7: The James-Lange Theory

In developing a model of the emotional regulation in the Insular Cortex it is almost impossible to continue without reference to one of the landmark theories on emotions – the James-Lange theory. William James was an American physician and psychologist who wrote the widely regarded Principles of Psychology textbook and other landmark texts on psychological phenomenon with an emphasis on introspection. Carl Lange was a physician who made important contributions to Neurology and Psychiatry including the James-Lange Theory.

Essentially the James-Lange Theory states that we perceive environmental stimuli which trigger physiological responses which in turn lead to emotional experiences. In other words our body reacts physiologically and only then do we have an emotional response. Our emotions are in effect responses to the world around us rather than being triggered by an inner self. If this theory is correct then we do not choose to be joyful but rather we experience a ‘joyful’ stimulus which then triggers a physiological response and then the emotion of joy. William James put it in these terms

Our natural way of thinking about these standard emotions is that the mental perception of some fact excites the mental affection called the emotion and this latter state of mind gives rise to the bodily expression. My thesis on the contrary is that the bodily changes follow directly the perception of the exciting fact, and that our feeling of the same changes as they occur is the emotion. Common sense says, we lose our fortune, are sorry and weep; we meet a bear, are frightened and run; we are insulted by a rival, are angry and strike. The hypothesis here to be defended says that this order of sequence is incorrect that the one mental state is not immediately induced by the other, that the bodily manifestation must first be interposed between and that the more rational statement is that we feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble and not that we cry, strike or tremble because we are sorry, angry or fearful as the case may be. Without the bodily states following on the perception, the latter would be purely cognitive in form, pale, colorless, destitute of emotional warmth. We might then see the bear, and judge it best to run, receive the insult and deem it right to strike, but we should not actually feel afraid or angry

There are of course many critiques of this theory (e.g this one) but the James-Lange theory serves as a useful starting point for discussion of the emotions. In terms of this model it would also feature as one of the higher level concepts in the hierarchy of assumptions within the model. The opposite view can be taken – that the emotions direct the physiological response and this can certainly be considered in model-building. However the model resulting from this alternative consideration would take a different direction. The point is that a great multitude of different models are possible depending on the decisions taken about which theories or assumptions to incorporate.

In the model building process I will remain flexible, keeping alternative assumptions or theories in reserve. The larger model (or in one sense the gestalt) will be significantly influenced by these decisions.

 

Insular Cortex Resources on this Site

Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation: Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 2

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 3

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 4

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 5

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 6

What does the Insular Cortex Do Again?

Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke

The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions

Pathobiology of Visceral Pain

Interoception and the Insular Cortex

A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion

Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex

MR Visualisations of the Insula

The Subjective Experience of Pain

How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body

How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness

Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain

The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia

A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart

The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?

Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex

YouTubing the Insular Cortex (Brodmann Areas 13, 14 and 52)

New Version of Video on Insular Cortex Uploaded

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.