Daily Archives: November 24, 2012

Passage of the UK Mental Health (Discrimination) Bill News Roundup: November 2012 4th Edition

There is an update on the passage of the UK Mental Health (Discrimination) Bill in the House of Commons.

One research group in Scotland is piloting a drama based program which portrays the experience of people with young-onset dementia. The vignettes will be available for other researchers.

A recent report has supported the use of the citizen science where volunteers participate in running research trials. There is more here.

One Canadian study by Oh and colleagues showed a benefit for exercise in people following a stroke. 41 study participants underwent a 6 month exercise program and scores were found to improve after training. However it would be interesting to see the results of a larger replication study with a comparator arm in the study.

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury is associated with changes in the activity in the brain’s default mode network in this study.

An American study has looked at the effects of sedentary behaviour and walking on cognition in people with Alzheimer’s Disease. The researchers found evidence of a decline in cognition in people who did not engage in exercise compared to those engaged in over 2 hours of walking per week.

In one study researchers investigated factors that delayed progression to Alzheimer’s Disease in carriers of the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele. They found that an absence of vascular risk factors, educational level and leisure activities all contributed to a delay in progression. This was a large cohort (n-932) followed up over 9 years.

Neuroscience

One recent study published in Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics showed evidence that a visual prosthesis enabled subjects in the study to read visual braille. Essentially a camera and software setup was used to convert text into a visual form of braille. This information was then fed through to a neural prosthesis that enabled the person to interpret the visual braille.

The neural cell community have created a resource for collating research and review papers in their field which may be of interest to other communities.

In this Magnetoencephalography study, researchers found that a slowing of resting state brain activity was correlated with the development of cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s Disease offering the prospect of a biomarker although further research is needed.

 

Open Science

There is a list of online educational tools for science here.

Frank Spencer has made his reading list of 10,000 books available here. The books are neuroscience and philosophy focused.

There is a very interesting diagram on this page displaying the results of a study investigating the relationship between journals in terms of where articles were submitted to. If an article was not published but instead resubmitted to another journal the relationship between the two was noted. The cumulative total of such links over a large sample set enabled the researchers to display a complex network of Journals. High impact Journals and Journals in related fields showed strong connections to each other.

Evolutionary Psychiatry

The remains of a 10,000 year old settlement reveal life in Scotland at that time and give insights into the evolution of culture.

Appendix

News Round-Up 2008-2011

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

New Video on the Hippocampus

I’ve just uploaded a creative commons video of the Hippocampus. The data was derived from the Japanese Life Science Database and the video was originally sourced from Wikimedia Commmons and i’ve added a soundtrack.
Feel free to remix the video if you have a YouTube account.

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Doing Science Using Open Data – Part 6: Modelling Populations

In this 6th part of the series on using open data for science I’ve take a slight diversion to look at populations and the issue of sampling. This was prompted by a look at the UK mid-2011 Census data shown in the graph below.

Figure 1: Summation of male and female figures for each age from mid-2011 Census. Red bars represent the age group 45-65 and the blue bars represent the age group 16-44

What were going to do is look at the UK population and build a mathematical population and build a model for the populations we’ve looked at in the previous posts. Just to recap, when we compared two populations there are a number of statistical methods for doing this which are dependent on the characteristics of the population. For a normally distribution population we can define this population by the mean and standard deviation. As discussed in previous posts the populations in this post from the census study in mid 2011 which are not normally distributed. In the first segment aged 16-44 there is a somewhat homogenous group?? whilst in the group 45-65 there is a right skewed distribution that is the numbers for each year get progressively smaller.

In the third part in this series I included some of the data from the mid-2011 Census which I will reproduce here to support the subsequent discussion. Summing the male and female figures we get the following results for ages 16 through to 44

680,979
706,234
711,491
741,667
765,895
757,901
757,295
771,297
756,449
768,415
774,921
759,889
768,860
770,810
778,986
782,510
751,251
700,825
690,775
702,024
716,419
729,013
761,347
794,300
820,805
800,550
821,037
819,650
832,297

For ages 45-65 we get the following results

832,727
838,064
831,041
813,798
797,077
770,066
739,859
723,861
708,371
682,824
659,795
637,073
641,145
634,399
618,132
623,508
638,118
655,668
694,644
754,834
583,734

The total estimated population in England and Wales in Mid-2011 for the age group 16-44 is

21993892

and for the age group 45-65 is

15711035

So if we move firstly to the population aged 45-65. This population has a value that begins with 832,727 people aged 45 and decreases to 583,734 at age 65 . First recall that the x-axis represents age and the y-axis is the number of people in each age group. The population can be approximately described by a line of decreasing slope.  Now if we’re going to model this we’re going to need to understand what the relationship is between x and y. Quite obviously as x increases y decreases and the relationship is described by y = -x. Looking at the graph above this doesn’t seem intuitive. None of the y values are negative. However if the graph began at (0,0) then it would become negative as x increased. The reason that this doesn’t happen in the above graph is that the line y = -x is translated in a positive direction along the y-axis. So in other words (I will take out the negative sign at this stage as it will be dealt with by the coefficient a)

y =  x + c

In addition to this, rather than a straight line with a unit gradient (i.e for every unit increase along the x-axis there is a unit increase along the y-axis) the line has a gradient which we have yet to determine. For the sake of convenience I will refer to this as

y =  a x + c

There is a simple introduction to lines and slopes below.

Our job now is to find out what those two variables a and c are. This is going to be an approximation. Turning first to people aged 45

y =  a x + c

832,727 =  44 a + c

and for the age 65

583,734 =  65 a + c

We have two equations that we have to solve and two sets of values to do this. Since

832727 = 44 a + c

44 a = 832727 – c

a = (832727-c)/44

Now from the original equations we know that

583,734 = 65 a + c

and therefore substituting

a = (832,727-c)/44

we get

583734 = 65/44 (832727-c) + c

Multiplying out we get

583734 =  (1 – 1.477)c + 1230164.89

- 646430.88636 = -0.477c

c = 1354426.6

Substituting back into the original equation

583,734 = 65 a + 1354426.6

Rearranging we get

(583,734 – 1354426.6)/65 = a

a = -11856.81

Substituting the values for a and c into the original equations above, the reader will be see that these values solve the equations. The numbers have been rounded up. Indeed rounding to the nearest number we arrive at the following equation

y = -11857 x + 1354427

This equation approximately describes the UK mid-2011 Census data for the age group 45-65 where y is the total population for each age and x is the age in years within the given range.

Appendix

Doing Science Using Open Data – Part 1

Doing Science Using Open Data – Part 2

Doing Science Using Open Data – Part 3

Doing Science Using Open Data – Part 4

Doing Science Using Open Data – Part 5

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.