Category Archives: brain

Do Smaller Species See in Slow Motion?

A few years ago I was playing about with the slow motion feature on my camcorder and had a bit of fun speculating about why we don’t see in slow motion. I wondered why flies seem to respond so quickly to stimuli in the environment. Little did I know that a few years later researchers would look at this question in more detail and find some very interesting correlations.

The researchers have recently published this study in the Journal of Animal Behaviour. They hypothesised that species with a higher basal metabolic rate would have more energy to invest in the high resource activity of high resolution motion processing. They also hypothesised that larger species, being less manoeuvrable would have less need for high resolution motion processing with the converse being true for smaller species.

The research group then looked at basal metabolic rate data for several species (although there were a few adjustments explained in the paper).

slowmotionvision

In the graphs above, the researchers have plotted critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF) against Body Mass and Basal Metabolic Rate respectively. Critical flicker fusion frequency is the lowest frequency at which a flashing light source is perceived as constant.

The researchers found the correlation they expected in the graphs above. Correlation doesn’t necessarily imply causation but it certainly does provide some strong evidence in support of their hypotheses. So flies may be able to visually process the world much more quickly than we are. Could this apply to humans during development?

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Questions Raised by the Model: Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 21

A Model of the Insular Cortex

In the last post we looked at some of the features of the model as it begins to take shape. Could the Insular Cortex act as a transformer in a simple system where physiological responses are translated into emotional experiences in a single part of the brain.

Such a model as it is stated is simple, perhaps too simple and raises a number of questions

1. Does information from physiological responses require more than one step to be transformed into emotional experiences?

2. If a transformative function is required should this occur in just a single location or like many functions would this be distributed?

3. If the Insular Cortex were the only location for this transformation then would that determine many of the anatomical relationships it has with other structures e.g. would it need a direct or indirect connection with all other areas involved in emotional experience or regulation?

4. What constitutes a physiological response? The perception of neutral stimuli in the environment is a physiological response involving the sensory and perceptual apparatus. Do the physiological responses relevant to this discussion have to be characterised?

Related Resources on this Site

Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation: Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 2: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 3: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 2

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 4: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 3

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 5: The Evolution of the Insular Cortex

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 6: A Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 7: The James-Lange Theory

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 8: The Cannon-Bard Thalamic Theory of Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 9: Charles Darwin on the Expression of the Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 10: The Limbic System

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 11: A Second Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 12: GABA receptors and Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 13: GABA receptors and Nematode Worms

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 14: Are GABA Receptors Related to Anxiety in Humans Because Worms Wriggle?

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 15: Another Recap

A Diversion into the Limbic System: Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 16

A Look at the Amygdala-PFC Dyad – Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 17

What does the Insular Cortex Do Again?

Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke

The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions

Pathobiology of Visceral Pain

Interoception and the Insular Cortex

A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion

Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex

MR Visualisations of the Insula

The Subjective Experience of Pain

How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body

How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness

Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain

The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia

A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart

The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?

Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex

YouTubing the Insular Cortex (Brodmann Areas 13, 14 and 52)

New Version of Video on Insular Cortex Uploaded

Contributors to the Model (links are to the posts in which contributions were made – these links may contain further links directly to the contributors)

Ann Nonimous

The Neurocritic

Psico-logica

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

The Science of Magic…. and it Involves Attention

“You see, but you do not observe. The distinction is clear. For example, you have frequently seen the steps which lead up from the hall to this room.”
“Frequently.”
“How often?”
“Well, some hundreds of times.”
“Then how many are there?”
“How many? I don’t know.”
“Quite so! You have not observed. And yet you have seen. That is just my point. Now, I know that there are seventeen steps, because I have both seen and observed.”
from ‘A Scandal in Bohemia’, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, 1891

iStock_000013481752Small

In this TEDx talk, psychologist Gustav Kuhn takes us through the science of magic. As a magician himself he has the advantage of having two perspectives on this subject. The analogy between magic and research studies where subjects are distracted from the aim of the study is an interesting point.

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.