Category Archives: insular cortex

Questions Raised by the Model: Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 21

A Model of the Insular Cortex

In the last post we looked at some of the features of the model as it begins to take shape. Could the Insular Cortex act as a transformer in a simple system where physiological responses are translated into emotional experiences in a single part of the brain.

Such a model as it is stated is simple, perhaps too simple and raises a number of questions

1. Does information from physiological responses require more than one step to be transformed into emotional experiences?

2. If a transformative function is required should this occur in just a single location or like many functions would this be distributed?

3. If the Insular Cortex were the only location for this transformation then would that determine many of the anatomical relationships it has with other structures e.g. would it need a direct or indirect connection with all other areas involved in emotional experience or regulation?

4. What constitutes a physiological response? The perception of neutral stimuli in the environment is a physiological response involving the sensory and perceptual apparatus. Do the physiological responses relevant to this discussion have to be characterised?

Related Resources on this Site

Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation: Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 2: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 3: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 2

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 4: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 3

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 5: The Evolution of the Insular Cortex

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 6: A Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 7: The James-Lange Theory

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 8: The Cannon-Bard Thalamic Theory of Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 9: Charles Darwin on the Expression of the Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 10: The Limbic System

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 11: A Second Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 12: GABA receptors and Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 13: GABA receptors and Nematode Worms

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 14: Are GABA Receptors Related to Anxiety in Humans Because Worms Wriggle?

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 15: Another Recap

A Diversion into the Limbic System: Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 16

A Look at the Amygdala-PFC Dyad – Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 17

What does the Insular Cortex Do Again?

Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke

The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions

Pathobiology of Visceral Pain

Interoception and the Insular Cortex

A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion

Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex

MR Visualisations of the Insula

The Subjective Experience of Pain

How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body

How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness

Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain

The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia

A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart

The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?

Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex

YouTubing the Insular Cortex (Brodmann Areas 13, 14 and 52)

New Version of Video on Insular Cortex Uploaded

Contributors to the Model (links are to the posts in which contributions were made – these links may contain further links directly to the contributors)

Ann Nonimous

The Neurocritic

Psico-logica

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 20

A Model of the Insular Cortex

In preceding posts we have looked at various models of emotions in the brain which have allowed the contextualisation of a model of the Insular Cortex. Two early and general models of emotions look at the relationship between emotions and physiological responses to stimuli.

There are at least two ways in which this relationship can happen. We sense a stimulus – a spider for example. When we see the spider we experience fear and our heart starts to race. Or else we see the spider and our heart races and we respond with the sense of fear.

In this simplistic model there would need to be a means of transforming information from physiological responses into emotional experiences. In this context we can start with the hypothesis that the Insular Cortex is a transformer. In just the same way we could also argue that the Insular Cortex transmits information from physiological responses or else that it is the location for emotional experiences.

Regardless of whether this is correct or not, this explicit hypothesis enables us to explore the function of the Insular Cortex and also the question of whether information from physiological responses can be converted directly into emotional experiences or whether one or more transformative steps are required.

There are still a few steps before the contextualised model can be stated.

Related Resources on this Site

Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation: Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 2: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 3: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 2

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 4: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 3

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 5: The Evolution of the Insular Cortex

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 6: A Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 7: The James-Lange Theory

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 8: The Cannon-Bard Thalamic Theory of Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 9: Charles Darwin on the Expression of the Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 10: The Limbic System

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 11: A Second Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 12: GABA receptors and Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 13: GABA receptors and Nematode Worms

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 14: Are GABA Receptors Related to Anxiety in Humans Because Worms Wriggle?

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 15: Another Recap

A Diversion into the Limbic System: Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 16

A Look at the Amygdala-PFC Dyad – Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 17

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 19

What does the Insular Cortex Do Again?

Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke

The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions

Pathobiology of Visceral Pain

Interoception and the Insular Cortex

A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion

Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex

MR Visualisations of the Insula

The Subjective Experience of Pain

How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body

How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness

Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain

The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia

A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart

The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?

Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex

YouTubing the Insular Cortex (Brodmann Areas 13, 14 and 52)

New Version of Video on Insular Cortex Uploaded

Contributors to the Model (links are to the posts in which contributions were made – these links may contain further links directly to the contributors)

Ann Nonimous

The Neurocritic

Psico-logica

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Returning to the Beginning: Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 19

A Model of the Insular Cortex

Almost 5 years ago, we looked at a model of the Insular Cortex that started with a few assumptions from some papers which included one looking at GABA receptors in the Insular Cortex and anxiety. Along the way we looked at works by Antonio Damasio and A.Bud.Craig. More recently we have looked at other areas of the brain implicated in our emotional experiences as well as some of the influential models of the Limbic System.

Returning to the beginning and looking at how to build such a model it seems sensible to contextualise the model in terms of the most influential theories in this area. William James and Carl Lange raised the question of whether we first experience physiological reactions and then emotions whilst in the Cannon-Bard theory the reverse is stated. In either case there is a stated connection between physiological reactions to events and emotions.

These physiological reactions in the body produce information. The process of responding to this information is interoception. The Insular Cortex receives interoceptive input from the body leading to a posited role in interoception. Referring to the discussion above we can see that the Insular Cortex is therefore a natural point of enquiry for exploring the relationship between physiological responses to events and our emotional experiences.

Related Resources on this Site

Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation: Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 2: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 3: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 2

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 4: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 3

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 5: The Evolution of the Insular Cortex

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 6: A Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 7: The James-Lange Theory

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 8: The Cannon-Bard Thalamic Theory of Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 9: Charles Darwin on the Expression of the Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 10: The Limbic System

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 11: A Second Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 12: GABA receptors and Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 13: GABA receptors and Nematode Worms

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 14: Are GABA Receptors Related to Anxiety in Humans Because Worms Wriggle?

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 15: Another Recap

A Diversion into the Limbic System: Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 16

A Look at the Amygdala-PFC Dyad – Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 17

What does the Insular Cortex Do Again?

Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke

The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions

Pathobiology of Visceral Pain

Interoception and the Insular Cortex

A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion

Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex

MR Visualisations of the Insula

The Subjective Experience of Pain

How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body

How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness

Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain

The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia

A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart

The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?

Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex

YouTubing the Insular Cortex (Brodmann Areas 13, 14 and 52)

New Version of Video on Insular Cortex Uploaded

Contributors to the Model (links are to the posts in which contributions were made – these links may contain further links directly to the contributors)

Ann Nonimous

The Neurocritic

Psico-logica

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Fear and Love in the Brain – A Look at the Fornix: Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 18 (Updated 27.8.13)

A Model of the Insular Cortex

In building a model of the Insular Cortex in emotions it is necessary to first look at the function of other brain regions thought to be involved in emotions. The Fornix is part of the Limbic System, receiving input from the Hippocampus. The Fornix has been suggested to have a role in fear and romantic love.

Fornix

There is a very good review by Thomas and colleagues which looks at the anatomy in health and disease. They comment on the consequences of damage to the Fornix. This pattern mirrors the impairments that result from involvement of other structures including the mamillary bodies in Korsakoff’s Syndrome (this is a syndrome which is associated with persistent excessive alcohol intake but also with insufficient dietary Thiamine intake).

There is a body of literature suggesting that the Fornix is involved in the fear response according to the context and that this fear response is dependent on the theta rhythm in the Hippocampus.

Related Resources on this Site

Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation: Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 2: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 3: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 2

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 4: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 3

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 5: The Evolution of the Insular Cortex

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 6: A Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 7: The James-Lange Theory

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 8: The Cannon-Bard Thalamic Theory of Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 9: Charles Darwin on the Expression of the Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 10: The Limbic System

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 11: A Second Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 12: GABA receptors and Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 13: GABA receptors and Nematode Worms

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 14: Are GABA Receptors Related to Anxiety in Humans Because Worms Wriggle?

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 15: Another Recap

A Diversion into the Limbic System: Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 16

A Look at the Amygdala-PFC Dyad – Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 17

What does the Insular Cortex Do Again?

Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke

The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions

Pathobiology of Visceral Pain

Interoception and the Insular Cortex

A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion

Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex

MR Visualisations of the Insula

The Subjective Experience of Pain

How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body

How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness

Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain

The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia

A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart

The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?

Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex

YouTubing the Insular Cortex (Brodmann Areas 13, 14 and 52)

New Version of Video on Insular Cortex Uploaded

Contributors to the Model (links are to the posts in which contributions were made – these links may contain further links directly to the contributors)

Ann Nonimous

The Neurocritic

Psico-logica

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

A Look at the Amygdala: Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 17

A Model of the Insular Cortex

In previous posts we have looked at the Insular Cortex, general models of the emotions and more recently the Hippocampus. The role of the Insular Cortex in emotions must be understood both in terms of the role of the Insular Cortex in other functions (e.g. interoception) as well as the role of other areas in emotions (e.g. the Limbic System). Although an understanding of these related areas is necessary, the understanding does not need to be too sophisticated. We need to come away with some simple assumptions that help to limit and guide the model we are interested in.

There are a number of areas that are thought to be involved in emotions. The Amygdala is one such area and the aim of this post is to look at briefly at what role the Amygdala might play in emotions and how it might do this. The paper used to inform this exploration of the Amgydala is ‘The Structural and Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala: From Normal Emotion to Pathological Anxiety‘ by Kim and colleagues (Kim et al, 2011).

Amgydala

The main points that I took away from this paper are that

1. The medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) and Amygdala are tightly coupled and that the mPFC influences the output of the Amgydala.

2. The Amygdala is connected to many other brain regions. The authors detail the connections with the mPFC noting that diffuse tensor imaging reveals afferent projections to the Amgydala from the caudal and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex.

3. fMRI studies suggest that Amygdala activity is inversely correlated with mPFC activity during tasks involving interpretation of facial expressions.

4. Nuclei in the Amgydala include the basolateral area (BLA) and the centra nucleus (Ce). BLA receives inputs sensory inputs. The central nucleus projects to the Hypothalamus, brainstem nuclei as well as monoaminergic and cholinergic systems.

5. Research studies have shown the Amgydala to be necessary for classical conditioning and extinction.

6. Emotional regulation can be understood in terms of a competition between top-down and bottom-up processes. The Amygdala is central to the resolution of these bidirectional processes. Emotionally ambivalent signals such as fearful faces or surprised faces are interpreted by the Amgydala.

7. The Amygdala-mPFC dyad is involved in suppression or reappraisal of emotional stimuli.

8. The Amygdala-mPFC dyad is involved in pathological anxiety states. Typically there is hypoactivity of the mPFC and hyperactivity of the Amgydala in Amgydala-PFC models of pathological anxiety.

9. In social anxiety disorder there is evidence of involvement of the Amgydala-mPFC circuits including hypoactivation of the mPFC in emotional tasks as well as involvement of the Uncinate fasciculus.

10. One suggestion about Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is that there is an incomplete conditioned fear extinction. There is evidence of reduced mPFC activity in response to frightened faces.

The paper offers an interesting and simple model of the involvement of the Amygdala and medial Prefrontal Cortex in emotional regulation which can be used to contextualise the emotional function of other brain regions.

Related Resources on this Site

Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation: Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 2: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 3: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 2

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 4: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 3

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 5: The Evolution of the Insular Cortex

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 6: A Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 7: The James-Lange Theory

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 8: The Cannon-Bard Thalamic Theory of Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 9: Charles Darwin on the Expression of the Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 10: The Limbic System

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 11: A Second Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 12: GABA receptors and Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 13: GABA receptors and Nematode Worms

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 14: Are GABA Receptors Related to Anxiety in Humans Because Worms Wriggle?

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 15: Another Recap

A Diversion into the Limbic System: Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 16

What does the Insular Cortex Do Again?

Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke

The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions

Pathobiology of Visceral Pain

Interoception and the Insular Cortex

A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion

Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex

MR Visualisations of the Insula

The Subjective Experience of Pain

How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body

How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness

Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain

The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia

A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart

The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?

Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex

YouTubing the Insular Cortex (Brodmann Areas 13, 14 and 52)

New Version of Video on Insular Cortex Uploaded

Contributors to the Model (links are to the posts in which contributions were made – these links may contain further links directly to the contributors)

Ann Nonimous

The Neurocritic

Psico-logica

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

A Diversion into the Limbic System Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 16

A Model of the Insular Cortex

In this series we are looking to build a model of the Insular Cortex in terms of emotional regulation. Along the way we have seen that a number of other brain circuits are involved in emotions as reflected in the diagram above. In this post I have taken a diversion into the Limbic System to better contextualise the role of the Insular Cortex in emotions.

We can ask the question what is the role of the Limbic System in emotions that would distinguish it from the Insular Cortex? In order to begin to answer this question we would need to better understand the Limbic System itself. In this post I’m looking at a review article about the Hippocampus, a key part of the Limbic System. The paper is titled ‘Decoding information in the Human Hippocampus: A User’s Guide‘ by Chadwick, Bonnici and Maguire.

The authors look at a neat statistical analytical technique known as multi-voxel pattern analysis (MPVA) which is increasingly being used in fMRI analysis. In fMRI analysis, the brain is divided up into voxels which are volume units. This facilitates analysis of the activity detected by the scanner. Much of the analysis has involved region of interest analysis where activity in a region of the brain is analysed in relation to the experimental variables of interest.

The problem inherent in this technique is that it makes an assumption about brain activity which then constrains the subsequent analysis. The analysis assumes that the region is involved in the activity rather than discrete areas within multiple regions or even discrete areas within brain regions. However if activity occurs within discrete networks within a single region, then a region of interest analysis will overlook this activity which is lost in the averaged data.

MVPA divides voxels into groups and assesses activity against the experimental variables of interest. In a simple example it would be state A or B. There are multiple groups which allow multiple tests of the data. The analysis uses the number of experimental states to facilitate an assessment of the accuracy of the analysis in predicting activity-state correlates.

The paper then summarises some of the research that has been done using this approach and the results are very interesting. Check the paper for more details (including a few missing steps based on frequency maps to get to some of the results below) but what some of the research is suggesting is that

1. The Hippocampus works by separating out patterns that are presented to it and turning them into unique events. A crude example would be separating out apples and oranges that are presented in sequence. Components of both apples and oranges such as red, orange, peel and shape would be utilised to discriminate one from the other. This has been suggested from previous research but some of the experimental evidence here is quite neat.

The Hippocampus

2. The Hippocampus stores information about scenes according to spatial location distributed amongst different memories. Based on research by Hassabis and colleagues there was also a suggestion that the Posterior Parahippocampal Cortex played a role in storing different aspects of environments in a way which was possibly complementary to the Hippocampus

The Parahippocampal Gyrus

3. Episodic memories were likely to be stored in the Hippocampus, Parahippocampal Cortex and Entorhinal Cortex with Hippocampal activity appearing to be better correlated with these memories.

4. That the Hippocampus may form memories based on principles utilised in neural networks. The story here however is less straightforward. Rather than simple attractor networks it looks as though the Hippocampus creates/stores simple networks and then generates modified networks based on novel but slight different patterns. To me this sounded a bit like the process of induction.

5. Activity in the Hippocampus was correlated with higher level decision making based on classifying patterns.

Perhaps the fifth point is one of the most important ones as it suggests that the Hippocampus as part of the Limbic System could be playing a central role in decision making on the basis of received sensory information/perception. This easily lends itself to a discussion of the emotions.

Related Resources on this Site

Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation: Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 2: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 3: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 2

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 4: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 3

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 5: The Evolution of the Insular Cortex

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 6: A Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 7: The James-Lange Theory

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 8: The Cannon-Bard Thalamic Theory of Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 9: Charles Darwin on the Expression of the Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 10: The Limbic System

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 11: A Second Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 12: GABA receptors and Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 13: GABA receptors and Nematode Worms

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 14: Are GABA Receptors Related to Anxiety in Humans Because Worms Wriggle?

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 15: Another Recap

What does the Insular Cortex Do Again?

Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke

The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions

Pathobiology of Visceral Pain

Interoception and the Insular Cortex

A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion

Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex

MR Visualisations of the Insula

The Subjective Experience of Pain

How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body

How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness

Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain

The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia

A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart

The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?

Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex

YouTubing the Insular Cortex (Brodmann Areas 13, 14 and 52)

New Version of Video on Insular Cortex Uploaded

Contributors to the Model (links are to the posts in which contributions were made – these links may contain further links directly to the contributors)

Ann Nonimous

The Neurocritic

Psico-logica

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Another Recap. Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 15

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In the previous posts we looked at the possibility that GABA receptors are linked to anxiety through an ancient evolutionary mechanism which facilitates movement. More precisely the GABA receptors in a distant relative – the Nematode worm (C.Elegans) relax opposing muscles enabling the worm to move in the necessary direction.

In prior posts we looked at various models of the emotions as shown in the diagram below.

A Model of the Insular Cortex

The intention in building a model of the Insular Cortex is to suggest realistically how the neurobiology of the Insular Cortex can play a role in emotional experiences. To do this it is necessary to integrate a theoretical understanding of emotions with the neurobiology of the Insular Cortex and validate this with our intuitive understanding of emotional experiences.

Craig has given a very good account of how the Insular Cortex might play a role both in conscious awareness and in emotional experience and I intend to revisit his work. However it is also necessary to contextualise this in the broader understanding of emotions which I have not yet examined in any detail.

Although the emotions are understood intuitively there is a significant body of theory knowledge also. For instance ‘The Handbook of Emotional Regulation’ (Gross, 2007) is over 650 pages in length and significant research findings continue to emerge each month. Clearly there is a practical limit to how much knowledge can be incorporated into a model and therefore decisions around what to exclude are just as important as the model itself.

In summarising the material to date, the Insular Cortex receives interoceptive information (i.e information about the body’s internal state). This may be important in helping us to feel an awareness of our body. This awareness may be key to our conscious experience and more specifically to some of our emotional states.

This occurs in a wider context of other models of emotions. The Limbic circuit is a brain circuit with ancient evolutionary connections to the sense of smell. The Limbic circuit has been long thought of as being a key brain circuit for emotions. What is likely is that the Limbic circuit and the Insular Cortex play distinct roles in emotional experience and associated phenomenon (e.g. blood pressure changes in response to emotions). It is this level of detail which will be most appropriate for developing a model with practical utility.

The discussion about GABA receptors and movement emphasises another aspect of the model. With sufficient detail it should be possible to identify psychopharmacological correlates of emotions and brain circuits for these emotions. There is a great deal of work that has been done in the clinical area in identifying mood related neurotransmitters. These different approaches offer different perspectives on emotion related phenomena.

References

Handbook of Emotional Regulation. Edited by James J Gross. The Guildford Press. 2007.

Related Resources on this Site

Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation: Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 2: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 3: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 2

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 4: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 3

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 5: The Evolution of the Insular Cortex

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 6: A Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 7: The James-Lange Theory

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 8: The Cannon-Bard Thalamic Theory of Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 9: Charles Darwin on the Expression of the Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 10: The Limbic System

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 11: A Second Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 12: GABA receptors and Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 13: GABA receptors and Nematode Worms

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 14: Are GABA Receptors Related to Anxiety in Humans Because Worms Wriggle?

What does the Insular Cortex Do Again?

Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke

The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions

Pathobiology of Visceral Pain

Interoception and the Insular Cortex

A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion

Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex

MR Visualisations of the Insula

The Subjective Experience of Pain

How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body

How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness

Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain

The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia

A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart

The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?

Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex

YouTubing the Insular Cortex (Brodmann Areas 13, 14 and 52)

New Version of Video on Insular Cortex Uploaded

Contributors to the Model (links are to the posts in which contributions were made – these links may contain further links directly to the contributors)

Ann Nonimous

The Neurocritic

Psico-logica

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.