Category Archives: Podcast Review

YouTubing the Insular Cortex – Updated 18.6.12


Insular Cortex in Coronal Section
, Derived from Public Domain Reproduction of Lithograph from 20th Edition of Gray’s Anatomy (1918)

Lateral Exposure of Insular Cortex, Derived from Public Domain Reproduction of Lithograph from 20th Edition of Gray’s Anatomy 1918

This post started of as a look at YouTube material on Brodmann Area 13 but it looks as though there is some controversy about Brodmann Area 13 existing in humans with some sources stating that it has been identified only in the Guenon Monkey. Nevertheless there are a number of sources that identify an Area 13 in humans and further localise the area to the Posterior Insular Cortex. For the sake of simplicity I have collected Areas 13, 14 and 52 together and searched for material on YouTube using the term ‘Insular Cortex’. Having been developing a model of the Insular Cortex on YouTube, I wasn’t surprised to find these videos appearing in the search results and I’ve included them below (the model has been on the back-burner for a little while). Unfortunately the sound quality on these early videos isn’t great but that should be addressed with future updates.

Building  A Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 1

Building A Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 2

Criticisms of the Model

In the usual mix of rock groups naming themselves or their song after a part of the brain (I note that the flocculonodular lobe is still up for grabs!) there were some useful educational videos on the Insular Cortex and it looks to be slightly more popular than other brain regions (on YouTube at least). In this video, the lecturer gives a straightforward account of the anatomical connections of the Insular Cortex which is displayed in lateral and coronal views.

Anatomical Relations of the Insular Cortex

There is a further detailed description of the anatomical relations in this video which includes schematics, models and anatomical sections.

Anatomical Relations of the Insular Cortex

Anatomical Relations of the Insular Cortex and a Discussion of the Neurophysiology

Professor Semir Zeki discusses the results of a neuroimaging study which shows an association between activity in the Insular Cortex and affiliative bonding.

Neurophysiology of the Insular Cortex

Searching for videos on YouTube sometimes retrieves unusual videos that give the impression that it is a search through the collective unconscious mind and I thought this video was a rather amusing example. It’s completely unrelated to the Insular Cortex other than to say it has Insula in the title but I thought the reader might be interested to see it.

A Video with the Word ‘Insula’ in the Title

Appendix – Articles Reviewed in relation to Brodmann Areas or other Structures

Brodmann Area 1 – Somatosensory Cortex: An Investigation of D3 Receptors and Brodmann Area 1 in Schizophrenia, YouTubing the Somatosensory Cortex Brodmann Area 4 – The Primary Motor Cortex: Brodmann Areas– Part 2: Area 4. The Primary Motor Cortex – A Brief Literature Review, YouTubing the Motor Cortex Brodmann Area 6 (Agranular Frontal Area 6): FDG-PET, Frontal Dysfunction and Mild Cognitive Impairment, Brodmann Area 6 – Premotor Cortex and the Supplementary Motor Area , YouTubing Brodmann Area 6 Brodmann Areas 5 and 7 (Somatosensory Association Cortex): Brodmann Areas 5 and 7 (Somatosensory Association Cortex) Brodmann Area 8: Brodmann Area 8 Youtubing Brodmann Area 8 Brodmann Area 9: Brodmann Area 9 YouTubing Brodmann Area 9 Brodmann Area 10: Brodmann Area 10 YouTubing Brodmann Area 10 Brodmann Area 11: Brodmann Area 11. A Brief Review of the Literature. Brodmann Area 12 YouTubing Brodmann Area 12  Brodmann Areas 13, 14 and 52 (Insular Cortex) What does the Insular Cortex Do Again? Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation Part 1 Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex: A Recap  The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions  Pathobiology of Visceral Pain  Interoception and the Insular Cortex  A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion   Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex  MR Visualisations of the Insula  The Subjective Experience of Pain*  How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body  How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness   Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain  The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia   A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart  The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?   Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex  Brodmann Area 15 (Anterior Temporal Lobe – Controversial Area in Humans): Review: The Anterior Temporal Lobes and Semantic Memory   Brodmann Area 25 – Anterior Cingulate Cortex: Brodman Areas Part 3. Brodmann Area 25 – The Anterior Cingulate Cortex  Brodmann Area 27 (Piriform Cortex): Anosmia in Lewy Body Dementia   Brodmann Area 28  (Entorhinal Cortex): MRI Measures of Temporoparietal Atrophy During Prodromal Alzheimer Disease*   Brodmann Areas 45, 46, 47 (Inferior Frontal Gyrus): Which Bit of the Brain Detects the Emotions in Speech? Medial Temporal Lobe: The Medial Temporal Lobe and Recognition Memory  Hippocampus: Review: Differences in Hippocampal Metabolism Between Amnestic and Non-Amnestic MCI Subjects Anatomy of the Hippocampus Review: Involvement of BDNF in Age-Dependent Alterations in the Hippocampus Miscellaneous Subcortical Structures: Book Review: Subcortical Vascular Dementia Review: Subcortical Vascular Ischaemic Dementia Review: Psychiatric Disturbances in CADASIL  Review: Cognitive Decline in CADASIL  Review: Relationship Between 24-hour Blood Pressure, Subcortical Ischemic Lesions and Cognitive Impairment    Hypocretin and Neurological Disorders    A Case of Pontine and Extrapontine Myelinolysis with Catatonia   Generic Articles Relating to Localisation: A History of Human Brain Mapping  Book Review: Brain Architecture  Brain Folding and the Size of the Human Cerebral Cortex

An index of the site can be found here. The page contains links to all of the articles in the blog in chronological order. Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

YouTubing Brodmann Area 11

I undertook a search on YouTube for videos relevant to Brodmann Area 11 by using the search term “Brodmann Area 11″. This search produced 108 results but after examining the more relevant videos there were no videos relevant to the search query. Similarly after expanding the search using the term ‘Orbital Gyrus’ there were only 4 videos retrieved and again none were relevant to the search query. The search query “Superior Frontal Gyrus” produces 7 results although these overlap with the Inferior Frontal Gyrus which contains Broca’s Area and thus interferes with the search. Again closer examination of the videos returned didn’t identify material relevant to the search query. Thus at the current time based on the search above there was no relevant material for Brodmann Area 11.

Appendix – Articles Reviewed in relation to Brodmann Areas or other Structures

Brodmann Area 1 – Somatosensory Cortex: An Investigation of D3 Receptors and Brodmann Area 1 in Schizophrenia, YouTubing the Somatosensory Cortex Brodmann Area 4 – The Primary Motor Cortex: Brodmann Areas – Part 2: Area 4. The Primary Motor Cortex – A Brief Literature Review, YouTubing the Motor Cortex Brodmann Area 6 (Agranular Frontal Area 6): FDG-PET, Frontal Dysfunction and Mild Cognitive Impairment, Brodmann Area 6 – Premotor Cortex and the Supplementary Motor Area , YouTubing Brodmann Area 6 Brodmann Areas 5 and 7 (Somatosensory Association Cortex): Brodmann Areas 5 and 7 (Somatosensory Association Cortex) Brodmann Area 8: Brodmann Area 8 Youtubing Brodmann Area 8 Brodmann Area 9: Brodmann Area 9 YouTubing Brodmann Area 9 Brodmann Area 10: Brodmann Area 10 YouTubing Brodmann Area 10 Brodmann Area 11: Brodmann Area 11. A Brief Review of the Literature. Brodmann Areas 13 and 14 (Insular Cortex) What does the Insular Cortex Do Again? Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation Part 1 Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex: A Recap  The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions  Pathobiology of Visceral Pain  Interoception and the Insular Cortex  A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion   Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex  MR Visualisations of the Insula  The Subjective Experience of Pain*  How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body  How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness   Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain  The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia   A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart  The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?   Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex  Brodmann Area 15 (Anterior Temporal Lobe – Controversial Area in Humans): Review: The Anterior Temporal Lobes and Semantic Memory   Brodmann Area 25 – Anterior Cingulate Cortex: Brodman Areas Part 3. Brodmann Area 25 – The Anterior Cingulate Cortex  Brodmann Area 27 (Piriform Cortex): Anosmia in Lewy Body Dementia   Brodmann Area 28  (Entorhinal Cortex): MRI Measures of Temporoparietal Atrophy During Prodromal Alzheimer Disease*   Brodmann Areas 45, 46, 47 (Inferior Frontal Gyrus): Which Bit of the Brain Detects the Emotions in Speech? Medial Temporal Lobe: The Medial Temporal Lobe and Recognition Memory  Hippocampus: Review: Differences in Hippocampal Metabolism Between Amnestic and Non-Amnestic MCI Subjects Anatomy of the Hippocampus Review: Involvement of BDNF in Age-Dependent Alterations in the Hippocampus Miscellaneous Subcortical Structures: Book Review: Subcortical Vascular Dementia Review: Subcortical Vascular Ischaemic Dementia Review: Psychiatric Disturbances in CADASIL  Review: Cognitive Decline in CADASIL  Review: Relationship Between 24-hour Blood Pressure, Subcortical Ischemic Lesions and Cognitive Impairment    Hypocretin and Neurological Disorders    A Case of Pontine and Extrapontine Myelinolysis with Catatonia   Generic Articles Relating to Localisation: A History of Human Brain Mapping  Book Review: Brain Architecture  Brain Folding and the Size of the Human Cerebral Cortex

An index of the site can be found here. The page contains links to all of the articles in the blog in chronological order. Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

YouTubing Brodmann Area 8

A search for videos on Youtube relating to Brodmann Area 8 was conducted using the search terms ‘Brodmann Area 8′ and ‘Frontal Eye Fields’. This was a slightly tricky search because Brodmann Area 8 is amongst the areas in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex. However the latter terms is more relevant for a number of other Brodmann Areas and so I excluded the term from this search. There were a handful of relevant videos retrieved from the above search. There is a video of brain activity from a study by Yeo et al in this video which includes the Frontal Eye Fields (FEF). The information caption below the video describes connections between the FEF and the Parietal Association Cortex. There were a number of other videos on vestibular testing although not directly relevant to the search (although there are some convoluted associations with Brodmann Area 8). As the Frontal Eye Fields are involved in eye movements including saccades, I performed an additional search for saccades which returned some interesting videos including this one on testing for horizontal and vertical saccades, this video showing a pursuit tracker for eye movements and also smooth pursuit eye movements which retrieved this video on vertical smooth pursuit movements and this video on horizontal smooth pursuit movements amongst others.

An index of the site can be found here. The page contains links to all of the articles in the blog in chronological order. Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.