Category Archives: Podcast Review

YouTubing the Insular Cortex – Updated 18.6.12


Insular Cortex in Coronal Section
, Derived from Public Domain Reproduction of Lithograph from 20th Edition of Gray’s Anatomy (1918)

Lateral Exposure of Insular Cortex, Derived from Public Domain Reproduction of Lithograph from 20th Edition of Gray’s Anatomy 1918

This post started of as a look at YouTube material on Brodmann Area 13 but it looks as though there is some controversy about Brodmann Area 13 existing in humans with some sources stating that it has been identified only in the Guenon Monkey. Nevertheless there are a number of sources that identify an Area 13 in humans and further localise the area to the Posterior Insular Cortex. For the sake of simplicity I have collected Areas 13, 14 and 52 together and searched for material on YouTube using the term ‘Insular Cortex’. Having been developing a model of the Insular Cortex on YouTube, I wasn’t surprised to find these videos appearing in the search results and I’ve included them below (the model has been on the back-burner for a little while). Unfortunately the sound quality on these early videos isn’t great but that should be addressed with future updates.

Building  A Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 1

Building A Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 2

Criticisms of the Model

In the usual mix of rock groups naming themselves or their song after a part of the brain (I note that the flocculonodular lobe is still up for grabs!) there were some useful educational videos on the Insular Cortex and it looks to be slightly more popular than other brain regions (on YouTube at least). In this video, the lecturer gives a straightforward account of the anatomical connections of the Insular Cortex which is displayed in lateral and coronal views.

Anatomical Relations of the Insular Cortex

There is a further detailed description of the anatomical relations in this video which includes schematics, models and anatomical sections.

Anatomical Relations of the Insular Cortex

Anatomical Relations of the Insular Cortex and a Discussion of the Neurophysiology

Professor Semir Zeki discusses the results of a neuroimaging study which shows an association between activity in the Insular Cortex and affiliative bonding.

Neurophysiology of the Insular Cortex

Searching for videos on YouTube sometimes retrieves unusual videos that give the impression that it is a search through the collective unconscious mind and I thought this video was a rather amusing example. It’s completely unrelated to the Insular Cortex other than to say it has Insula in the title but I thought the reader might be interested to see it.

A Video with the Word ‘Insula’ in the Title

Appendix – Articles Reviewed in relation to Brodmann Areas or other Structures

Brodmann Area 1 – Somatosensory Cortex: An Investigation of D3 Receptors and Brodmann Area 1 in Schizophrenia, YouTubing the Somatosensory Cortex Brodmann Area 4 – The Primary Motor Cortex: Brodmann Areas– Part 2: Area 4. The Primary Motor Cortex – A Brief Literature Review, YouTubing the Motor Cortex Brodmann Area 6 (Agranular Frontal Area 6): FDG-PET, Frontal Dysfunction and Mild Cognitive Impairment, Brodmann Area 6 – Premotor Cortex and the Supplementary Motor Area , YouTubing Brodmann Area 6 Brodmann Areas 5 and 7 (Somatosensory Association Cortex): Brodmann Areas 5 and 7 (Somatosensory Association Cortex) Brodmann Area 8: Brodmann Area 8 Youtubing Brodmann Area 8 Brodmann Area 9: Brodmann Area 9 YouTubing Brodmann Area 9 Brodmann Area 10: Brodmann Area 10 YouTubing Brodmann Area 10 Brodmann Area 11: Brodmann Area 11. A Brief Review of the Literature. Brodmann Area 12 YouTubing Brodmann Area 12  Brodmann Areas 13, 14 and 52 (Insular Cortex) What does the Insular Cortex Do Again? Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation Part 1 Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex: A Recap  The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions  Pathobiology of Visceral Pain  Interoception and the Insular Cortex  A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion   Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex  MR Visualisations of the Insula  The Subjective Experience of Pain*  How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body  How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness   Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain  The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia   A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart  The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?   Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex  Brodmann Area 15 (Anterior Temporal Lobe – Controversial Area in Humans): Review: The Anterior Temporal Lobes and Semantic Memory   Brodmann Area 25 – Anterior Cingulate Cortex: Brodman Areas Part 3. Brodmann Area 25 – The Anterior Cingulate Cortex  Brodmann Area 27 (Piriform Cortex): Anosmia in Lewy Body Dementia   Brodmann Area 28  (Entorhinal Cortex): MRI Measures of Temporoparietal Atrophy During Prodromal Alzheimer Disease*   Brodmann Areas 45, 46, 47 (Inferior Frontal Gyrus): Which Bit of the Brain Detects the Emotions in Speech? Medial Temporal Lobe: The Medial Temporal Lobe and Recognition Memory  Hippocampus: Review: Differences in Hippocampal Metabolism Between Amnestic and Non-Amnestic MCI Subjects Anatomy of the Hippocampus Review: Involvement of BDNF in Age-Dependent Alterations in the Hippocampus Miscellaneous Subcortical Structures: Book Review: Subcortical Vascular Dementia Review: Subcortical Vascular Ischaemic Dementia Review: Psychiatric Disturbances in CADASIL  Review: Cognitive Decline in CADASIL  Review: Relationship Between 24-hour Blood Pressure, Subcortical Ischemic Lesions and Cognitive Impairment    Hypocretin and Neurological Disorders    A Case of Pontine and Extrapontine Myelinolysis with Catatonia   Generic Articles Relating to Localisation: A History of Human Brain Mapping  Book Review: Brain Architecture  Brain Folding and the Size of the Human Cerebral Cortex

An index of the site can be found here. The page contains links to all of the articles in the blog in chronological order. Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

YouTubing Brodmann Area 11

I undertook a search on YouTube for videos relevant to Brodmann Area 11 by using the search term “Brodmann Area 11″. This search produced 108 results but after examining the more relevant videos there were no videos relevant to the search query. Similarly after expanding the search using the term ‘Orbital Gyrus’ there were only 4 videos retrieved and again none were relevant to the search query. The search query “Superior Frontal Gyrus” produces 7 results although these overlap with the Inferior Frontal Gyrus which contains Broca’s Area and thus interferes with the search. Again closer examination of the videos returned didn’t identify material relevant to the search query. Thus at the current time based on the search above there was no relevant material for Brodmann Area 11.

Appendix – Articles Reviewed in relation to Brodmann Areas or other Structures

Brodmann Area 1 – Somatosensory Cortex: An Investigation of D3 Receptors and Brodmann Area 1 in Schizophrenia, YouTubing the Somatosensory Cortex Brodmann Area 4 – The Primary Motor Cortex: Brodmann Areas – Part 2: Area 4. The Primary Motor Cortex – A Brief Literature Review, YouTubing the Motor Cortex Brodmann Area 6 (Agranular Frontal Area 6): FDG-PET, Frontal Dysfunction and Mild Cognitive Impairment, Brodmann Area 6 – Premotor Cortex and the Supplementary Motor Area , YouTubing Brodmann Area 6 Brodmann Areas 5 and 7 (Somatosensory Association Cortex): Brodmann Areas 5 and 7 (Somatosensory Association Cortex) Brodmann Area 8: Brodmann Area 8 Youtubing Brodmann Area 8 Brodmann Area 9: Brodmann Area 9 YouTubing Brodmann Area 9 Brodmann Area 10: Brodmann Area 10 YouTubing Brodmann Area 10 Brodmann Area 11: Brodmann Area 11. A Brief Review of the Literature. Brodmann Areas 13 and 14 (Insular Cortex) What does the Insular Cortex Do Again? Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation Part 1 Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex: A Recap  The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions  Pathobiology of Visceral Pain  Interoception and the Insular Cortex  A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion   Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex  MR Visualisations of the Insula  The Subjective Experience of Pain*  How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body  How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness   Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain  The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia   A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart  The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?   Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex  Brodmann Area 15 (Anterior Temporal Lobe – Controversial Area in Humans): Review: The Anterior Temporal Lobes and Semantic Memory   Brodmann Area 25 – Anterior Cingulate Cortex: Brodman Areas Part 3. Brodmann Area 25 – The Anterior Cingulate Cortex  Brodmann Area 27 (Piriform Cortex): Anosmia in Lewy Body Dementia   Brodmann Area 28  (Entorhinal Cortex): MRI Measures of Temporoparietal Atrophy During Prodromal Alzheimer Disease*   Brodmann Areas 45, 46, 47 (Inferior Frontal Gyrus): Which Bit of the Brain Detects the Emotions in Speech? Medial Temporal Lobe: The Medial Temporal Lobe and Recognition Memory  Hippocampus: Review: Differences in Hippocampal Metabolism Between Amnestic and Non-Amnestic MCI Subjects Anatomy of the Hippocampus Review: Involvement of BDNF in Age-Dependent Alterations in the Hippocampus Miscellaneous Subcortical Structures: Book Review: Subcortical Vascular Dementia Review: Subcortical Vascular Ischaemic Dementia Review: Psychiatric Disturbances in CADASIL  Review: Cognitive Decline in CADASIL  Review: Relationship Between 24-hour Blood Pressure, Subcortical Ischemic Lesions and Cognitive Impairment    Hypocretin and Neurological Disorders    A Case of Pontine and Extrapontine Myelinolysis with Catatonia   Generic Articles Relating to Localisation: A History of Human Brain Mapping  Book Review: Brain Architecture  Brain Folding and the Size of the Human Cerebral Cortex

An index of the site can be found here. The page contains links to all of the articles in the blog in chronological order. Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

YouTubing Brodmann Area 8

A search for videos on Youtube relating to Brodmann Area 8 was conducted using the search terms ‘Brodmann Area 8′ and ‘Frontal Eye Fields’. This was a slightly tricky search because Brodmann Area 8 is amongst the areas in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex. However the latter terms is more relevant for a number of other Brodmann Areas and so I excluded the term from this search. There were a handful of relevant videos retrieved from the above search. There is a video of brain activity from a study by Yeo et al in this video which includes the Frontal Eye Fields (FEF). The information caption below the video describes connections between the FEF and the Parietal Association Cortex. There were a number of other videos on vestibular testing although not directly relevant to the search (although there are some convoluted associations with Brodmann Area 8). As the Frontal Eye Fields are involved in eye movements including saccades, I performed an additional search for saccades which returned some interesting videos including this one on testing for horizontal and vertical saccades, this video showing a pursuit tracker for eye movements and also smooth pursuit eye movements which retrieved this video on vertical smooth pursuit movements and this video on horizontal smooth pursuit movements amongst others.

An index of the site can be found here. The page contains links to all of the articles in the blog in chronological order. Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

The YouTube College

Back in 2009 I looked at a number of resources for statistics on YouTube (see below) and commented on a number of videos from the Khan Academy produced by Salman Khan. Since that time the academy has progressed and at the time of writing it features over 2400 videos on a number of topics from statistics to biology. What’s really interesting about the TED talk above (with a guest appearance from Bill Gates) is that Khan is talking about a new way of learning. His argument runs along the following lines. If the teacher gives a talk in a classroom of students then it is a one-size-fits-all model which doesn’t relate well to how students actually learn material. So Khan argues that if you give the students a set of videos which progress from simple to complex topics, then they can progress through at their own rate. This frees the teacher to help the students as necessary. Of course this is just the beginning because the developers associate videos with tests to help the students measure their progress (the progress rates also gave counterintuitive insights into the learning process itself) but also in his discussion at the end Bill Gates raises other possibilities – finding a mentor online according to their reputation before hinting that we are seeing the future of education. This model has already been rolled out at one college but it offers potential for courses to be developed locally. These are exciting times for education particularly if resources like YouTube are used to generate a globally competitive modular educational model.

Appendix

Statistics on YouTube

An index of the site can be found here. The page contains links to all of the articles in the blog in chronological order. Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

YouTubing the Somatosensory Cortex

 

I was just checking out the Somatosensory Cortex on Youtube to see what types of resources are there. I didn’t know what to expect as YouTube consists of a huge number of videos created from around the world. New footage is constantly added. After a bit of trial and error, there turned out to be some really useful videos on the subject. These could be broadly divided into research videos and neuroanatomy videos.

Research Videos: In this video, the researchers have used Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to incapacitate the Ventral Intraparietal Area homologue in humans. They found that this resulted in the arms being mapped onto a ‘default’ location adjacent to the trunk. There is also a brief news snippet from insidermedicine about research suggesting that the somatosensory cortex is more likely to be thickened in people with Migraine.

Neuroanatomy Videos: The first video I looked at was by bullharrier and provides a general overview of the sensory system. Bullharrier videos himself talking by a whiteboard and although there is a little pacing about which is commented on, he provides the audience with a useful 10-minute introduction to the sensory system ending with the conscious perception in the somatosensory cortex. I thought that the drawings were a little difficult to make out (although the labels are easy to work out) but he links in the physiology and this is part of a series he has created on neuroanatomy. A medium like YouTube will produce very popular videos or narrators who provide something unique or of excellent quality and in this regards YouTube has found a neuroanatomy star in the form of Walid Aziz Basharyar who YouTubes under the pseudonym Hyperhighs. Aziz’s channel is very popular with over 3.5 million hits and the central premise of the channel is that he will teach the audience  anatomy and neurophysiology with a combination of music and art. In the case of this video, the art is in the form of Aziz drawing the illustrations while we watch. Another popular YouTuber is Dr Najeeb who in this talk gives a 58 minute overview of the ascending tracts in the Central Nervous System. Although the main focus is on the ascending tracts which are obviously important for the somatosensory cortex Dr Najeeb knows his theory extremely well and his central premise is that there must be a clear elucidation of concepts to facilitate learning. This he achieves well in the video and he sets a standard for others teaching in this area.

Brainwashed Software showcase a highly professional businesses approach to neuroscience education. In this video about the Dorsal Medial Lemniscus, the narrator speaks at a moderate pace, clearly and in a way which easily gains the attention of the audience. There is accompanying music which stays in the background but adds a dramatic effect to the presentation. I think the software used is remarkable as it demonstrates a journey from the sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system through to the sensory cortex. What I find remarkable is the very close attention to detail. The coronal sections appear to have been taken from histological sections and the orientation of the fibres is shown to change very subtly at the different levels and is complemented by the detailed narration.

There’s quite a mixture of videos here on the somatosensory cortex but this approach shows just how important context is when trying to understand neuroanatomy.

An index of the site can be found here. The page contains links to all of the articles in the blog in chronological order. Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Looking at the Future of Medicine

The TED video series is an inspiring collection that highlights ‘Ideas Worth Spreading’. Dr David Kraft who is an oncologist gives a talk on the future of medicine. Medicine is a combination of science and technology (i.e the application of science) and consequently medical technology is a very broad field. In this episode, Kraft focuses on medical technologies that are likely to transform and define the future of medicine. He introduces us to his own genome profiling which enabled him to make contact with a lady with similar genetic ancestry who was thereby likely to be related to him and to go on to start up a facebook group to link in with others sharing the same genotype. In a relatively short space of time Kraft then goes on to present to us an impressive range of medical technologies that are already transforming live. The current state of development of prosthetic limbs that he shows us are a quite remarkable example of this. Other technologies are just on the point of becoming widely available and he reminds us that with creativity they can be adapted for use in medicine. Technology is just one aspect of practice though and it will be interesting to see how these developments are enriched by the impact they have on people’s lives.

An index of the site can be found here. The page contains links to all of the articles in the blog in chronological order. Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Podcast Review: An Unusual Case of Postpartum Psychosis and a Clarification on Conduct Disorders

There is a really interesting edition of  ‘The American Journal of Psychiatry’ – the June 2011 edition which is freely available here. The podcast is clearly narrated. Firstly there is a discussion of a case of postpartum psychosis. What is particularly interesting is that it deviates from the more typical case in terms of the lady’s disorientation and the Liaison psychiatrist is alert to the possibility of something else going on. After a few crucial questions some tests are undertaken and it turns out to be a Urea Cycle Disorder. For the interested reader the podcast is well worth listening as it elaborates further on the management in this case and is a useful reminder of the importance of the more unusual differentials in atypical cases. Hyperammonaemia was identified and treated with an accompanying improvement in the mental state (which incidentally was only partially responsive to antipsychotics prior to the diagnosis being made). There is brief coverage of Star D study of parents of children with major depression, a comparison of oral and depot antipsychotics as well as an investigation of opiate dependence and decision making.

There is also a discussion of an interesting study which finds a relationship between ADHD and deficient emotional self-regulation. In the study which looked at people with ADHD and their families, the researchers found that there was a homogenous group that manifested both ADHD and deficient emotional self-regulation. The researchers suggest that it would be useful to further characterise this group. In another study, the researchers investigated conduct disorders with onset in adolescence. There has been some suggestion that in contrast with early onset conduct disorder the adolescent onset conduct disorder would be influenced more strongly by the environment than genetics. However in their study they found that the group with adolescent onset conduct disorder had reduced grey matter volume in the Amygdala and in the Right Ventral Insular Cortex compared to a healthy control group. As the Amygdala has been associated with fear conditioning they suggest that some of the associations may be explained by these findings. It’s very interesting to find the association with the Insular Cortex which is very strongly linked with emotions. In the discussion they suggest that these findings may go some way to explaining a blunted response to stress. These latter two study findings are helping to build up a useful picture of emotional disorders with significant behavioural associations and it will be interesting to follow research in this area.

An index of the site can be found here. The page contains links to all of the articles in the blog in chronological order. Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.