In the news round-up this week there is a new MRI protocol developed at the Mayo Clinic which is being used to discriminate different types of dementia and there is also evidence that the levels of antibodies against plaque components in Alzheimer’s Disease decreases with age.
Research in Mood Disorders
In an open-label flexible-dosing trial of Ziprasidone for acute bipolar mania (n=65), 98% of the adverse events were classed as mild to moderate in severity. Improvement in Mania Rating Scale scores was comparable across the examined subpopulations – those with mania alone, mixed episode and also with or without psychosis (Keck et al, 2009).
Research in Dementia
In a case-control study of people with Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) (217 people with AD and 76 controls) there was found to be a significantly increased proportion of people with type A personality types compared to controls (Nicholas et al, 2009). In a small study comparing 13 people with frontotemporal dementia with 12 people with Alzheimer’s Disease and 20 people with Semantic Dementia using structural MRI longitudinally (1 year) – there was found to be a significantly greater rate of atrophy in the frontal lobes in FTD than the other two groups and a similar rate of atrophy in the temporal lobe in semantic dementia and AD (Krueger et al, 2009).
News in Brief
In one study, antibodies against ABeta peptide were found to decrease with advancing age and in people with Alzheimer’s Disease. Interestingly health control subjects were found to have antibodies against a number of antigens from plaques found in rare forms of dementia although the significance of this is far from clear. In another study, severe Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease was associated with significantly decreased performance on a validated 35-point cognitive scale compared to performance in a control group without COPD after controlling for possible confounders. The authors of a meta-analysis looking at 118 neuropsychological tests in the discrimination of Vascular Dementia and Alzeheimer’s Disease concluded that only 2 tests were effective in discrimination – the emotional recognition and delay recall tasks – but concluded that multiple sources of information were needed for the purposes of discrimination. In a similar vein, a team at the Mayo Clinic have been developing an MRI protocol for discriminating Alzheimer’s Disease, Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Lewy Body Dementia. The protocol is referred to as the STAND-Map protocol (Structural Abnormality Index). The protocol is apparently effective at discriminating ’75-80%’ of cases although the results are due to be presented at a conference and it will be interesting to have a closer look at the breakdown of figures. Mutations in the protein LRKK2 are associated with Parkinson’s Disease and the authors a new study found that another protein referred to as CHIP binds to LRKK2 and modifies the levels of LRKK2 and it will be interesting to see the results of further studies in this area. A widely reported study showed an improvement in aged mice’s memory and attention when given large amounts of caffeine and an associated reduction in levels of Beta-Amyloid. A systematic review of first and second generation antipsychotics found no evidence of efficacy in prevention of delirium in hospitalised patients and equivalent efficacy in treatment of delirium.
A randomised placebo-controlled trial (using placebo patches) of nicotine patches involving 400 smokers compared those taking nicotine patches before stopping smoking versus taking placebo. Both groups then used the nicotine patches for 10 weeks. At 10 weeks 22% of the first group had abstained from smoking compared to 11% of those taking the placebo before stopping smoking. Adults grow new neurons in the brain – referred to as neurogenesis. The authors of a recently published study found an association between neurogenesis in mice and an improved ability to form more finely detailed spatial maps of the environment suggesting that these new cells are functional which in turn implies that they are integrating with other neurons that form memory. Data from the Dunedin study in New Zealand provided evidence that certain aspects of the family history was useful in stratifying risk of recurrence of specific mental illnesses. The authors of a Cochrane review concluded that preventive psychological intervention (CBT and counselling) after trauma may not prevent onset of PTSD symptoms. This study was looking at prevention rather than treatment of PTSD. However in treatment of PTSD there is a good evidence base for psychological treatments. Researchers are beginning a study into the use of echolocation in blind people to help them navigate around the environment – this involves producing a clicking sound with the use of the tongue on the palate. The echoes from the clicks should allow determination of objects in the environment and this has already been used.
As the 2012 Olympics approaches a new report has been published which reviews evidence from over 500 papers as well as expert interviews on crowd behaviours – the Understanding Crowd Behaviours Report. A computer simulation of organisms which uses simple variations in behaviour showed that turn-taking developed when organisms with different behaviours ‘locked’ into each other’s behaviour. In essence this suggests that individuals pursuing their own interests can engage in turn-taking behaviour. However this does not negate the possibility that turn-taking can occur for altruistic reasons particularly as decision-making is influenced by many factors in more complex organisms.
Keck P E, Versiani M, Warrington L, Loebel A D, Horne L. Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Ziprasidone in Subpopulations of Patients with Bipolar Mania. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009. 70(6). 844-851.
Krueger CE, Dean DL, Rosen HJ, Halabi C, Weiner M, Miller BL, Kramer JH. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2009 Jun 30. [Epub ahead of print].Longitudinal Rates of Lobar Atrophy in Frontotemporal Dementia, Semantic Dementia, and Alzheimer’s Disease.
Nicholas H, Moran P, Foy C, Brown RG, Lovestone S, Bryant S, Boothby H. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009 Jul 6. [Epub ahead of print]. Are abnormal premorbid personality traits associated with Alzheimer’s disease? – A case-control study.
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