News in Brief
There have been a lot of studies looking at the possible benefits of the ACE inhibitors in reducing the risk of dementia but a new study gives a twist to the story. This is a prospective study involving people without dementia at baseline and the researchers selected 1074 participants from the cohort. They found that taking a centrally-acting ACE-inhibitor was associated with a 65% decrease in cognitive decline (using a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) and that taking a peripherally-acting ACE-inhibitor was associated with a 73% increased risk of dementia compared to those taking other antihypertensive medication. This study occurs in the context of other studies suggesting a benefit of the ACE-inhibitors in dementia on various outcome measures. However it is important to note that the participants in this study were being treated with antihypertensives and were thus a selective group. This may be an important finding and the investigation of the actions of the centrally-acting ACE-inhibitors may well give some important insights into dementia. It will be very interesting to follow the necessary subsequent research in this area. Researchers at the University of California have identified an association between PTSD and increased risk of subsequent dementia using information from a database on 181,093 veterans over the age of 55-years although this association did not occur after controlling for depression, substance misuse and traumatic brain injury. An engineered protein that can be extracted from goat’s milk has and which interacts with the Beta-Amyloid protein has been suggested as a potential prophylactic agent for people who carry a variant of the Butylcholinesterase inhibitor gene. Several studies were presented at the 2009 International Conference on Alzhiemer’s Disease which this year was in Vienna. Thus evidence was presented that strictly adhering to a diet for hypertension – the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Diet was associated with improved cognitive functioning compared to those who didn’t adhere as consistently. There were 3,831 participants over the age of 65 who were followed up over 11 years. Adherence to the diet was represented by an ‘adherence score’ and associations with cognition were also found for fruit and vegetables as well as low fat dairy products. In another of the studies, a prospective study of 3075 people aged 70-79 there was a significant association between sedentary lifestyle and lower cognitive scores (modified MMSE) as well as between declining scores and declining physical activity. Another of the studies, this time in post-menopausal women showed a benefit on cognition for moderate exercise but a detrimental effect for chronic strenuous exercise although the study included a small number of participants (90) and it would be interesting to see further replication studies.
A recent committee found evidence of an association between Agent Orange exposure in Vietnam war veterans and risk of developing Parkinson’s Disease based on an an analysis of 16 studies looking at the effects of the herbicides. The authors conclude however that other types of study are needed to examine this association in more detail. A new Xenon delivery system has been developed which may have benefits in protecting against hypoxia-induced brain injury in humans. A single-blinded study (n=78) looked at improving attention (4 types described) in people who had developed a stroke by using Attention Process Training. Although they did find an improvement in attention with this training, at 6-months. A research team at the University of Vermont have been analysing text strings in blogs to estimate how ‘happy’ people are by looking at sentences with the words ‘I feel..’ in them. They were able to use 10 million sentences (from this site) and amongst their many findings they noted that people increasingly used the word ‘proud’ at the time of President Obama’s election, that Michael Jackson’s death was associated with a big drop in the valence scores (valence scores were calculated by rating each type of emotional word to estimate) and that teenagers were more likely to use the word ‘sad’ in the sentence.
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