Brodmann Area 6 – The Premotor Cortex and Supplementary Motor Area

Derived from Gray’s Anatomy 20th Edition 1918 Lithograph Reproduction, Public Domain

Brodmann Area 6 corresponds to both the Premotor Cortex (PMC) and the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) (which is distinct from the preSMA).

In this paper, the author suggests that the mirror neurons which have been found in the PMC may play a role in learning to play music as cells in this area are active both during motor activities and sensory stimulation. In this meta-analysis the authors suggest that the mirror system and the mentalising systems are complementary to each other and they refer to over 200 fMRI studies that support the role of the PMC and the Anterior Intraparietal Sulcus in producing the mirror system. The role of the PMC and the mirror neuron system in imitation is discussed in this meta-analysis. The possible role of mirror neurons in the PMC in recovery from aphasia in the context of research using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation is discussed in this paper. The authors of this paper discuss research supporting a role of the Ventral Premotor Cortex in both music and language. The clinical implications of the mirror neuron system are discussed in a paper which is freely available here. Damage to the Premotor Cortex including the Frontal Eye Fields following a Right Middle Cerebral artery stroke was associated with an impairment of egocentric spatial representation in one case. The PMC is included in a model of embodied semantics in this paper.

In this paper the SMA is included amongst a number of brain regions involved in estimating duration (i.e time)(and in this paper as well as this freely available paper). The SMA is one of the targets for improving motor performance in Parkinson’s Disease. The possible functions of the SMA are reviewed in this paper. The large number of areas that connect with the SMA are commented on in this paper and a role in psychosis is postulated. The role of the SMA in learned actions is discussed in this paper. The role of the motor Thalamus which amongst other structures receives projections from the SMA is discussed in relation to neurosurgery in this paper. The relationship of akinesia to hypoactivation of the SMA is discussed in this paper. A case of gait apraxia associated with a bilateral SMA lesion is discussed in this freely available paper.  The possible role of the SMA in language and more specifically the consonant-vowel frame is discussed in this paper. The activation of the SMA during musical imagery is discussed in this paper. The SMA is one of a number of areas active during word reading in discussed in this freely available paper. In another freely available paper the authors discuss the role of the SMA in verbal working memory. The role of the SMA in skilled performance is discussed in this freely available paper.

Thus the SMA in particular is a well connected part of the brain. Whilst both the SMA and PMC form part of Brodmann Area 6 they are understood to have very different functions. The mirror neurons are characteristic of the PMC and the mirror neuron system a very well developed body of research literature. The role of the SMA has been explored in relation to a number of functions from skilled performance through to reading, psychosis and akinesia.

Appendix – Articles Reviewed in relation to Brodmann Areas or other Structures

Brodmann Area 1 – Somatosensory Cortex

An Investigation of D3 Receptors and Brodmann Area 1 in Schizophrenia

YouTubing the Somatosensory Cortex

Brodmann Area 2 – The Primary Motor Cortex

Brodmann Areas – Part 2: Area 4. The Primary Motor Cortex – A Brief Literature Review

YouTubing the Motor Cortex

Brodmann Area 6 (Agranular Frontal Area 6)

FDG-PET, Frontal Dysfunction and Mild Cognitive Impairment

Brodmann Areas 5 and 7 (Somatosensory Association Cortex)

Brodmann Areas 5 and 7 (Somatosensory Association Cortex)

Brodmann Areas 13 and 14 (Insular Cortex)

What does the Insular Cortex Do Again?

Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke

The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation Part 1

Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex: A Recap

The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions

Pathobiology of Visceral Pain

Interoception and the Insular Cortex

A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion

Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex

MR Visualisations of the Insula

The Subjective Experience of Pain*

How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body

How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness

Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain

The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia

A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart

The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?

Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex

Brodmann Area 15 (Anterior Temporal Lobe – Controversial Area in Humans)

Review: The Anterior Temporal Lobes and Semantic Memory

Brodmann Area 25 – Anterior Cingulate Cortex

Brodman Areas Part 3. Brodmann Area 25 – The Anterior Cingulate Cortex

Brodmann Area 27 (Piriform Cortex)

Anosmia in Lewy Body Dementia

Brodmann Area 28  (Entorhinal Cortex)

MRI Measures of Temporoparietal Atrophy During Prodromal Alzheimer Disease*

Brodmann Areas 45, 46, 47 (Inferior Frontal Gyrus)

Which Bit of the Brain Detects the Emotions in Speech?

Medial Temporal Lobe

The Medial Temporal Lobe and Recognition Memory

Hippocampus

Review: Differences in Hippocampal Metabolism Between Amnestic and Non-Amnestic MCI Subjects

Anatomy of the Hippocampus

Review: Involvement of BDNF in Age-Dependent Alterations in the Hippocampus

Miscellaneous Subcortical Structures

Book Review: Subcortical Vascular Dementia

Review: Subcortical Vascular Ischaemic Dementia

Review: Psychiatric Disturbances in CADASIL

Review: Cognitive Decline in CADASIL

Review: Relationship Between 24-hour Blood Pressure, Subcortical Ischemic Lesions and Cognitive Impairment

Hypocretin and Neurological Disorders

A Case of Pontine and Extrapontine Myelinolysis with Catatonia

Generic Articles Relating to Localisation

A History of Human Brain Mapping

Book Review: Brain Architecture

Brain Folding and the Size of the Human Cerebral Cortex

An index of the site can be found here. The page contains links to all of the articles in the blog in chronological order. Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

3 thoughts on “Brodmann Area 6 – The Premotor Cortex and Supplementary Motor Area

  1. Pingback: YouTubing Brodmann Area 6 « The Amazing World of Psychiatry: A Psychiatry Blog

  2. Pingback: News Roundup August 2011 – 2nd Edition « The Amazing World of Psychiatry: A Psychiatry Blog

  3. Pingback: Brodmann Area 8 « The Amazing World of Psychiatry: A Psychiatry Blog

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s