This is a brief literature review covering articles on Brodmann Area 8. A search was conducted in medline using the term ‘Brodmann Area 8’. The Frontal Eye Fields were not identified in Brodmann Area 8 in this fMRI study (article freely available here) and it is interesting to consider this further in the interpretation of other studies as a possible area of controversy. The authors of one paper (freely available here) describe the Medial Prefrontal Cortex, constituting Brodmann Areas 8 and 9 as an area which plays a role in music-evoked autobiographical memories. In this freely available article, the researchers examined a case series of people with lesions in the Superior Frontal Gyrus and hypothesised on the basis of their results that the Superior Frontal Gyrus was involved in working memory and that the left Superior Frontal Gyrus is involved in spatial processing amongst other findings. Coherent movements in the visual field were found to activate the Frontal Eye Fields (which the researchers describe as equivalent to Brodmann Area 8 ) in this PET study. Uncertainty was associated with Brodmann Area 8 in this fMRI study. Maximal binding and affintity of glutamate receptor subtypes was found in Brodmann Area 8 in this post-mortem study. A recently developed approach to localising brain activity on the basis of analysis of EEG activity (electroctomography) identified the Left Frontal Gyrus as manifesting increased activity following a period of treadmll activity in 22 runners.
Brodmann Area 8 has been studied in relation to a number of illnesses. In an fMRI study of a small group of chronic tinnitus patients, the Superior Frontal Gyrus was one of a number of areas showing an increase in activity in a binaural discrimination task when compared to controls. In a small PET study increased activity in a number of areas including Brodmann Area 8 were identified in subjects with Idiopathic Torsion Dystonia in comparison with controls. The groups were assessed whilst at rest and while playing a console game which involved the use of a joystick. In a case study the researchers identified an infarct interrupting the connections between the Basal Ganglia and the Left Superior Frontal Gyrus and associated with persisting executive dysfunction. An increase in Galanin was found in Brodmann Area 8 in subjects with Alzheimer’s Disease in comparison with a control group in this post-mortem study. In this post-mortem gene expression study, researchers identified a relatively large number of genes which were downregulated in Alzheimer’s Disease and Schizophrenia and which were distinct from the control sample. Grey matter reduction in the superior frontal gyrus differentiated subjects with schizophrenia with negative symptoms during periods of clinical stability from subjects with schizophrenia without negative symptoms during periods of clinical stability in this small study. The researchers in this fMRI study describe the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as including Brodmann Areas 8 and 9 and identified increased activity in subjects in these areas in a delayed response task. Reduced cerebral blood flow was identified with aging in a number of areas including Brodmann Area 8 in subjects with Schizophrenia in this PET study. Standing with eyes closed activated Brodmann Area 8 in this PET study.
Appendix – Articles Reviewed in relation to Brodmann Areas or other Structures
Brodmann Area 1 – Somatosensory Cortex
Brodmann Area 2 – The Primary Motor Cortex
Brodmann Area 6 (Agranular Frontal Area 6)
Brodmann Areas 5 and 7 (Somatosensory Association Cortex)
Brodmann Areas 13 and 14 (Insular Cortex)
Brodmann Area 15 (Anterior Temporal Lobe – Controversial Area in Humans)
Brodmann Area 25 – Anterior Cingulate Cortex
Brodmann Area 27 (Piriform Cortex)
Brodmann Area 28 (Entorhinal Cortex)
Brodmann Areas 45, 46, 47 (Inferior Frontal Gyrus)
Medial Temporal Lobe
Miscellaneous Subcortical Structures
Generic Articles Relating to Localisation
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