The following is a brief overview of the literature on BA11. Papers were retrieved from a search of Medline using the search term “Brodmann Area 11” and relevant papers were identified for inclusion in the review. BA11 is thought to play an important role in reward mediated behaviours and this hypothesis informs a number of studies investigating the relationship of BA11 to both physiological function and to pathology. Decreases in activity were found in a number of areas including BA11 which correlated with increasing reward in a study investigating reward mediated behaviour (paper freely available here). In one paper (freely available here) the authors suggest that BA11 is one of the regions involved in ‘cognitive empathy’. Regional cerebral blood flow in BA11 correlated with creative dimensions including flexibility and originality in a study using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Increased activity was seen in BA11 in response to odour detection in one fMRI study. The highest signal of D1 mRNA in the human brain was found in BA11 in one post-mortem study. Maximal binding of [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine were found in BA11 amongst other areas in one study.
Decreased regional cerebral blood flow was identified in BA11 in one PET study during an unexpected panic attack. In a small functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, subjects with Generalised Anxiety Disorder showed increased activity in four brain regions including BA11 compared to a control group in a task involving empathising with faces designed to induce worry. The researchers hypothesised that dysregulation of actvitity in these regions increases anxious rumination. A small structural MRI study found evidence of a reduction in grey matter volume in the medial aspect of the Orbitofrontal Cortex in panic disorder. Transient sadness was associated with changes in blood oxygenation level dependent signal in BA11 amongst other areas in one fMRI study. Response to Cognitive-behavioural Therapy for depression was associated with a significant increase in glucose metabolism in one PET study (freely available here). Reward associated activity in BA11 is also examined in this paper (freely available here). BA11 is one of the brain regions suggested to be associated with endogenous psychosis by one group. [3H]TCP binding was increased in BA11 in people with a prior diagnosis of Schizophrenia compared to a control group in one post-mortem study. Fractional Anistotropy was reduced in BA11 in people with Schizophrenia compared to a control group in one study using Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Structural MRI. In a structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging study (n=60), a group of older adults with Schizophrenia were found to have reduced grey matter in a number of brain regions including BA11 compared to a control group and equivalent to a group with Alzheimer’s Disease in those specific regions. In the Maudsley Early Onset Schizophrenia study, the researchers found an inverse relationship between grey matter volume in BA11 and duration of illness. In one post-mortem study differences in apolipoprotein D in BA11 discriminated people with a prior diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder from those with a prior diagnosis of Schizophrenia. Large decreases in D3 and D4 transcripts in BA11 in people with Schizophrenia compared to controls in one study. mGlur5 was increased in the pyramidal cells in BA11 in people with Schizophrenia compared to controls in one study.
During attention tasks activity in the right BA11 was reduced in people with Alzheimer’s Disease compared to a control group in one study. BA11 was one of the brain regions in which there was a significant difference in regional cerebral blood flow between people with Parkinson’s Disease manifesting intervention associated mood change (paper freely available here). In Parkinson’s Disease, the use of Deep Brain Stimualation of the Subthalamic Nucleus in one study was associated with a number of changes of activity after 6 months of use of the devices. The researchers correlated the changes in glucose metabolism using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET with performance on a number of neuropsychological tests. Although metabolism was increased in a number of brain regions, the researchers found that a decrease in normalized cerebral metabolic rates of glucose in BA11 was associated with a decline in verbal learning. Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection analysis of N-isopropyl-p-123I iodoamphetamine Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography was used to investigate brain perfusion in people with Parkinson’s Disease where the group was further examined according to whether there was freezing of gait. Freezing of gait was associated with reduced perfusion bilaterally in BA11. In a small study BA11 was one of the areas exhibiting atrophy in people with Semantic Dementia compared to a control group. People with Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) were compared with controls in one study investigating eating behaviour in FTLD. The researchers found that increased eating (hyperphagia) correlated with grey matter loss in BA11 in the FTLD group compared to the control group.
Using alpha-[(11)C]-methyl-L-tryptophan PET to investigate the rate of Serotonin synthesis researchers in one study found a negative correlation between rate of Serotonin synthesis in BA11 and quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption in male subjects diagnosed with alcohol dependence. In a Raclopride C 11 PET study (freely available here) investigating Dopamine 2 receptors in relatives of people with Alcohol Dependence compared to relatives of people without Alcohol Dependence, the researchers found evidence of increased D2 receptors in BA11 in the latter group. The researchers suggest that the D2 receptors in BA11 are protective against Alcohol Dependence and provide further evidence of a correlation of glucose metabolism with D2 receptors in BA11 in relatives of people with Alcohol Dependence. Evidence of glucose hypometabolism was found in BA11 in a group of people with Congenital Scoliosis compared to a control group (paper freely available here). In another PET study (freely available here) glucose metabolism in BA11 was inversely correlated with BMI. People with Facioscapulohumeral Dystrophy showed a reduction in grey matter volume in BA11 compared to controls in a structural MRI study. F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) was used to investigate glucose metabolism in one study. The researchers found that in pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease (PDCKD) patients there was a negative correlation between Hamilton Depression scale scores and glucose metabolism in BA11 which they suggest as a mechanism for depression in this population.
Appendix – Articles Reviewed in relation to Brodmann Areas or other Structures
Brodmann Area 1 – Somatosensory Cortex
Brodmann Area 2 – The Primary Motor Cortex
Brodmann Area 6 (Agranular Frontal Area 6)
Brodmann Areas 5 and 7 (Somatosensory Association Cortex)
Brodmann Area 8
Brodmann Area 9
Brodmann Area 10
Brodmann Areas 13 and 14 (Insular Cortex)
Brodmann Area 15 (Anterior Temporal Lobe – Controversial Area in Humans)
Brodmann Area 25 – Anterior Cingulate Cortex
Brodmann Area 27 (Piriform Cortex)
Brodmann Area 28 (Entorhinal Cortex)
Brodmann Areas 45, 46, 47 (Inferior Frontal Gyrus)
Medial Temporal Lobe
Miscellaneous Subcortical Structures
Generic Articles Relating to Localisation
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