Brodmann Area 11: A Brief Review of the Literature

The following is a brief overview of the literature on BA11. Papers were retrieved from a search of Medline using the search term “Brodmann Area 11” and relevant papers were identified for inclusion in the review. BA11 is thought to play an important role in reward mediated behaviours and this hypothesis informs a number of studies investigating the relationship of BA11 to both physiological function and to pathology.  Decreases in activity were found in a number of areas including BA11 which correlated with increasing reward in a study investigating reward mediated behaviour (paper freely available here). In one paper (freely available here) the authors suggest that BA11 is one of the regions involved in ‘cognitive empathy’. Regional cerebral blood flow in BA11 correlated with creative dimensions including flexibility and originality in a study using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Increased activity was seen in BA11 in response to odour detection in one fMRI study. The highest signal of D1 mRNA in the human brain was found in BA11 in one post-mortem study. Maximal binding of [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine were found in BA11 amongst other areas in one study.

Decreased regional cerebral blood flow was identified in BA11 in one PET study during an unexpected panic attack. In a small functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, subjects with Generalised Anxiety Disorder showed increased activity in four brain regions including BA11 compared to a control group in a task involving empathising with faces designed to induce worry. The researchers hypothesised that dysregulation of actvitity in these regions increases anxious rumination. A small structural MRI study found evidence of a reduction in grey matter volume in the medial aspect of the Orbitofrontal Cortex in panic disorder. Transient sadness was associated with changes in blood oxygenation level dependent signal in BA11 amongst other areas in one fMRI study. Response to Cognitive-behavioural Therapy for depression was associated with a significant increase in glucose metabolism in one PET study (freely available here). Reward associated activity in BA11 is also examined in this paper (freely available here). BA11 is one of the brain regions suggested to be associated with endogenous psychosis by one group. [3H]TCP binding was increased in BA11 in people with a prior diagnosis of Schizophrenia compared to a control group in one post-mortem study. Fractional Anistotropy was reduced in BA11 in people with Schizophrenia compared to a control group in one study using Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Structural MRI. In a structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging study (n=60), a group of older adults with Schizophrenia were found to have reduced grey matter in a number of brain regions including BA11 compared to a control group and equivalent to a group with Alzheimer’s Disease in those specific regions. In the Maudsley Early Onset Schizophrenia study, the researchers found an inverse relationship between grey matter volume in BA11 and duration of illness. In one post-mortem study differences in apolipoprotein D in BA11 discriminated people with a prior diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder from those with a prior diagnosis of Schizophrenia. Large decreases in D3 and D4 transcripts in BA11 in people with Schizophrenia compared to controls in one study. mGlur5 was increased in the pyramidal cells in BA11 in people with Schizophrenia compared to controls in one study.

During attention tasks activity in the right BA11 was reduced in people with Alzheimer’s Disease compared to a control group in one study. BA11 was one of the brain regions in which there was a significant difference in regional cerebral blood flow between people with Parkinson’s Disease manifesting intervention associated mood change (paper freely available here). In Parkinson’s Disease, the use of Deep Brain Stimualation of the Subthalamic Nucleus in one study was associated with a number of changes of activity after 6 months of use of the devices. The researchers correlated the changes in glucose metabolism using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET  with performance on a number of neuropsychological tests. Although metabolism was increased in a number of brain regions, the researchers found that a decrease in normalized cerebral metabolic rates of glucose in BA11 was associated with a decline in verbal learning. Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection analysis of N-isopropyl-p-123I iodoamphetamine Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography was used to investigate brain perfusion in people with Parkinson’s Disease where the group was further examined according to whether there was freezing of gait. Freezing of gait was associated with reduced perfusion bilaterally in BA11.  In a small study BA11 was one of the areas exhibiting atrophy in people with Semantic Dementia compared to a control group. People with Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) were compared with controls in one study investigating eating behaviour in FTLD.  The researchers found that increased eating (hyperphagia) correlated with grey matter loss in BA11 in the FTLD group compared to the control group.

Using alpha-[(11)C]-methyl-L-tryptophan PET to investigate the rate of Serotonin synthesis researchers in one study found a negative correlation between rate of Serotonin synthesis in BA11 and quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption in male subjects diagnosed with alcohol dependence. In a Raclopride C 11 PET study (freely available here) investigating Dopamine 2 receptors in relatives of people with Alcohol Dependence compared to relatives of people without Alcohol Dependence, the researchers found evidence of  increased D2 receptors in BA11 in the latter group. The researchers suggest that the D2 receptors in BA11 are protective against Alcohol Dependence and provide further evidence of a correlation of glucose metabolism with D2 receptors in BA11 in relatives of people with Alcohol Dependence. Evidence of glucose hypometabolism was found in BA11 in a group of people with Congenital Scoliosis compared to a control group (paper freely available here). In another PET study (freely available here) glucose metabolism in BA11 was inversely correlated with BMI. People with Facioscapulohumeral Dystrophy showed a reduction in grey matter volume in BA11 compared to controls in a structural MRI study. F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) was used to investigate glucose metabolism in one study. The researchers found that in pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease (PDCKD) patients there was a negative correlation between Hamilton Depression scale scores and glucose metabolism in BA11 which they suggest as a mechanism for depression in this population.

Appendix – Articles Reviewed in relation to Brodmann Areas or other Structures

Brodmann Area 1 – Somatosensory Cortex

An Investigation of D3 Receptors and Brodmann Area 1 in Schizophrenia

YouTubing the Somatosensory Cortex

Brodmann Area 2 – The Primary Motor Cortex

Brodmann Areas – Part 2: Area 4. The Primary Motor Cortex – A Brief Literature Review

YouTubing the Motor Cortex

Brodmann Area 6 (Agranular Frontal Area 6)

FDG-PET, Frontal Dysfunction and Mild Cognitive Impairment

Brodmann Area 6 – Premotor Cortex and the Supplementary Motor Area

YouTubing Brodmann Area 6

Brodmann Areas 5 and 7 (Somatosensory Association Cortex)

Brodmann Areas 5 and 7 (Somatosensory Association Cortex)

Brodmann Area 8

Brodmann Area 8

Youtubing Brodmann Area 8

Brodmann Area 9

Brodmann Area 9

YouTubing Brodmann Area 9

Brodmann Area 10

Brodmann Area 10

YouTubing Brodmann Area 10

Brodmann Areas 13 and 14 (Insular Cortex)

What does the Insular Cortex Do Again?

Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke

The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation Part 1

Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex: A Recap

The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions

Pathobiology of Visceral Pain

Interoception and the Insular Cortex

A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion

Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex

MR Visualisations of the Insula

The Subjective Experience of Pain*

How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body

How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness

Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain

The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia

A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart

The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?

Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex

Brodmann Area 15 (Anterior Temporal Lobe – Controversial Area in Humans)

Review: The Anterior Temporal Lobes and Semantic Memory

Brodmann Area 25 – Anterior Cingulate Cortex

Brodman Areas Part 3. Brodmann Area 25 – The Anterior Cingulate Cortex

Brodmann Area 27 (Piriform Cortex)

Anosmia in Lewy Body Dementia

Brodmann Area 28  (Entorhinal Cortex)

MRI Measures of Temporoparietal Atrophy During Prodromal Alzheimer Disease*

Brodmann Areas 45, 46, 47 (Inferior Frontal Gyrus)

Which Bit of the Brain Detects the Emotions in Speech?

Medial Temporal Lobe

The Medial Temporal Lobe and Recognition Memory


Review: Differences in Hippocampal Metabolism Between Amnestic and Non-Amnestic MCI Subjects

Anatomy of the Hippocampus

Review: Involvement of BDNF in Age-Dependent Alterations in the Hippocampus

Miscellaneous Subcortical Structures

Book Review: Subcortical Vascular Dementia

Review: Subcortical Vascular Ischaemic Dementia

Review: Psychiatric Disturbances in CADASIL

Review: Cognitive Decline in CADASIL

Review: Relationship Between 24-hour Blood Pressure, Subcortical Ischemic Lesions and Cognitive Impairment

Hypocretin and Neurological Disorders

A Case of Pontine and Extrapontine Myelinolysis with Catatonia

Generic Articles Relating to Localisation

A History of Human Brain Mapping

Book Review: Brain Architecture

Brain Folding and the Size of the Human Cerebral Cortex

An index of the site can be found here. The page contains links to all of the articles in the blog in chronological order. Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.


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