The brain is a complex structure and but can be organised according to several principles. One approach is to characterise the brain regions according to the microscopic properties of these regions. More specifically the neurons are organised differently between regions. Some regions may contain unique types of neurons. This approach to understanding the organisation of the brain was proposed by the German Neuropathologist Korbinian Brodmann and resulted in the eponymously named Brodmann Area. There are 52 areas in all and I have covered other Brodmann Areas elsewhere in this Blog. This is the second in a series on one of these areas – Brodmann Area 22. A simple search strategy was adopted. The term ‘Brodmann Area 22’ was used to search in Medline using the PubMed interface. Relevant results were identified and included.
In an EEG study, a specialised method Electromagnetic Tomography was used to create a model of the source of discharges observed on the EEG in 22 subjects during and after a period of running on a treadmill. Fifteen minutes after the end of the exercise, BA22 was one of the regions showing a decrease in Alpha-2, Beta-1 and Gamma activity. The researchers in this study used depth electrode recording and an analysis of functional connectivity to characterise the responses of different areas to amplitude modulation. The researchers concluded that BA22 amongst other areas displayed evidence of response to amplitude modulation in both hemispheres (see also a study freely available here). In this study, researchers looked at people undergoing surgery for Temporal Lobe epilepsy using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to examine the functional connectivity between brain regions. They found that higher preoperative coupling between the Hippocampus and BA22 was associated with a postoperative reduction in verbal learning.
People with Schizophrenia were compared to controls in an fMRI study in which the researchers investigated changes in neural activity with an overlearning task. When the tasks become automatic, there are corresponding reductions in the activity in relevant brain regions. The researchers found this characteristic reduction in both controls and the people with Schizophrenia in a number of regions including BA22 suggesting that this method of learning is intact although changes in working memory in people with Schizophrenia have been identified in some studies. Advanced Glycation end products are compounds which accumulate in the brain with aging. In one study, the accumulation of AGE’s in BA22 was assessed in people who had been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease compared to a control group. The researchers found the characteristic accumulation of AGE’s in the former group compared to the control group and this accumulation progressed through the early, middle and later stages of Alzheimer’s Disease.
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