The brain is a complex structure and but can be organised according to several principles. One approach is to characterise the brain regions according to the microscopic properties of these regions. More specifically the neurons are organised differently between regions. Some regions may contain unique types of neurons. This approach to understanding the organisation of the brain was proposed by the German Neuropathologist Korbinian Brodmann and resulted in the eponymously named Brodmann Area. There are 52 areas in all and I have covered other Brodmann Areas elsewhere in this Blog. This is the third in a series on one of these areas – Brodmann Area 22. A simple search strategy was adopted. The term ‘Brodmann Area 22′ was used to search in Medline using the PubMed interface. Relevant results were identified and included.
In an intraoperative study involving people with epilepsy undergoing functional neurosurgery, the researchers used depth electrodes to record from multiple areas including Brodmann Area 22 (BA22). These areas represented the Primary Auditory Cortex and Association cortices. The researchers found that responses to sinusoidal modulated white noise were observed in these areas in both series and parallel processing streams suggesting a high degree of interactivity between these regions. In a small study, researchers compared subjects with REM sleep disorder with a control group using (99m)Tc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD) SPECT. In the REM sleep disorder group they found decreased activity in BA22 amongst several other areas relative to the control group. In an fMRI study, researchers examined the effects of age on semantic processing in children and adolescents aged 9-15. The researchers found that when undertaking semantic tasks in response to visual presentations, younger age was associated with increased use of BA22. The converse was true for the left BA21 as well as for BA40 (paper freely available here). In an immunohistochemical study, the researchers in this study found evidence for a peak concentration of Glyoxalase I in BA22 at age 55 and hypothesise that this is a response to a build-up of age-related advanced glycation products (AGE’s).
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