APOE and Lipid Metabolism (Updated 21.2.17)

liver
In a previous post we looked at a review by Dose J, Huebbe P, Nebel A and Rimbach G titled  ‘APOE4 genotype and stress response – a mini review’. APOE4 is referenced as an upstream regulator of Tau and Amyloid pathology in Small and Duff’s Dual Pathway Hypothesis.
Given the suggested role of APOE4 in the above hypothesis, it is important to understand the role of the Apolipoprotein (APOE) in lipid metabolism.
In their paper, Dose et al note that there APOE plays a role in three key pathways for lipid metabolism.
(1) The exogenous pathway: In this pathway, APOE is incorporated into chylomicrons as they pass from the intestine into the systemic circulation. The APOE facilitates the uptake of cholesterol in the Liver.
(2) The endogenous pathway: In this pathway, APOE facilitates the transfer of cholesterol to the peripheral tissues.
(3) The reverse cholesterol pathway: In this pathway, APOE facilitates the transfer of cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver.
This is a simplification of the more nuanced explanation provided by Dose et al.
Citation
Dose J, Huebbe P, Nebel A, Rimbach G. APOE genotype and stress response – a mini review. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2016;15:121. doi:10.1186/s12944-016-0288-2.

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