The Brain Hypometabolism Hypothesis Part 40: The Symporter

glucose_2

GLUT 13 is described as a symporter

What is a Symporter?

A symporter is a membrane protein that transports more than one substance across the membrane in the same direction. This contrasts with the antiporter (which transports substances in opposite directions) and a uniporter which transports a single substance.

What are the GLUT’s?

GLUT’s are short for Glucose Transporters. They constitute a set of molecules which transport substrates across cell membranes. They play a central role in Glucose transport and hence the name. However their role is not limited to the transport of Glucose.

GLUT 13

Professors Bernard Thorens and Mike Mueckler have written a review titled ‘Glucose Transporters in the 21st Century’. In terms of a Brain Hypometabolism Hypothesis, it is important to understand how Glucose is handled in the brain. Thorens and Mueckler reference 14 Glucose Transporters but not all of them are expressed in the brain.

In their paper, Professors Bernard Thorens and Mike Mueckler note that GLUT 13 is

  1. A myoinositol transporter
  2. A symporter
  3. Expressed mainly in the brain

As of April 2017 there is no solved structure for GLUT 13 according to PhosphoSite Plus.

 

What is the Brain Hypometabolism Hypothesis?

The Brain Hypometabolism Hypothesis broadly states that

Hypometabolism in the brain leads to neuropathology

Human_Metabolism_-_Pathways

Human Metabolism by Evans Love (CC BY 4.0)

What is Metabolism?

Metabolism can be defined as the chemical processes that occur in living organisms. There are three types of metabolic processes

(a) Generation of energy

(b) Generation of basic chemicals including fatty acids, amino acids and sugars

(c) Elimination of Nitrogen waste products

Restating the Brain Hypometabolism Hypothesis

The Brain Hypometabolism Hypothesis focuses on energy metabolism. More specifically the hypothesis states that

Energy hypometabolism in the brain leads to neuropathology

Citations

Thorens B, Mueckler M. Glucose transporters in the 21st Century. American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2010;298(2):E141-E145. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00712.2009.

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Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

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