The Insular Cortex and SNOMED CT®

Model Brain

We looked at the SNOMED CT® international browser in this post and the utilisation of the Brodmann Areas in this post. I noted that some of the Brodmann Areas were omitted from the SNOMED CT classification.

So what about the Insular Cortex. There are two ways that this is classified in the SNOMED CT® terminology. I have written previously about the Brodmann Areas in relation to the Insular Cortex. The Insular Cortex is described in several Brodmann Areas – 13, 14 and 52. Interestingly BA 13 and 14 are not included in the SNOMED CT® terminology.

In the previous posts, I noted that Brodmann’s description of BA 13 is only in the Guenon monkey.

There is a second descriptor used in SNOMED CT® for brain structures and this includes the different parts of the Insular Cortex and is represented by 9 digit descriptors.

Appendix A – Other Posts in the Series on Health Information Exchanges

A Literature Review of 40 years of SNOMED

Arizona Statewide Health Information Exchange

A History of The Health Information Exchange in Pennsylvania

The Arkansas Health Information Exchange – SHARE

The California Health Information Exchange – Cal Index

Creating a Health Information Exchange in Arizona

Health Information Exchanges

Health Information Exchanges and Chronic Conditions

HIPPA and Health Information Exchanges

ICD-11 and SNOMED CT®

ICD-SNOMED-CT® Harmonisation

ICD-1 – Well…near enough

ICD-2

ICD-3

ICD-4

ICD-5

ICD-6

ICD-7

ICD-8

ICD-9

ICD-10

ICD-11

Körner Data and SNOMED: A Snapshot from 1988

Mapping ICD 9 (or 10) to SNOMED CT®

Over 1 Million Relationships: SNOMED CT ®

SNOMED CT® International Browser

SNOMED CT® Utilises the Brodmann Area Classification for Brain Regions

What’s a Kinkajou got to do with 21st Century Medical Terminology?

Standardisation of Health Information Technology in New Zealand

Statisticians were Responsible for the Development of an International Classification of Diseases

Why Do We Need Electronic Record Systems to Talk to Each Other

Appendix B – Definition of Health Information Exchange

This is the definition of the Health Information Exchange that I use (Hersh et al, 2015)

Health information exchange (HIE), the electronic sharing of clinical information across the boundaries of health care organizations

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here

Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link.

TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link.

Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk.

Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Conflicts of Interest: *For potential conflicts of interest please see the About section.

The Icelandic Mutation Protects Against Alzheimer’s Disease

DNA code analysis

The Icelandic population has been closely studied in terms of the population genetics. This has led to many important discoveries about diseases. One of these discoveries is the Icelandic mutation A673T. The Icelandic mutation is a variant of the Amyloid precursor protein gene. The Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis is a central hypothesis in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease. This mutation has been associated with less Amyloid deposition and with more resilience to cognitive decline in people with cerebral pathology. There is a useful overview at the Alzforum.

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here

Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link.

TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link.

Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk.

Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Conflicts of Interest: *For potential conflicts of interest please see the About section.

What’s a Kinkajou got to do with 21st Century Medical Terminology?

computer-keyboard-1380475577zzm

We looked at the use of Brodmann Areas in SNOMED CT® in this post. I noted that several Brodmann Areas were not included in the SNOMED CT® classification via the international browser. One of these Brodmann Areas is BA 51 which i’ve written about previously. This is also referred to as the Prepiriform Area. As SNOMED CT® has evolved from SNOP – the descriptive system for pathology and Brodmann’s undertook a histological analysis there is likely to be a robust reason for this omission.

The answer is likely to be the Kinkajou. The video below is produced by the Hotel Tinamu in Colombia.

The Kinkajou is nocturnal and is a member of the genus Potus from the Procyonidae family. Brodmann described Brodmann Area 51 not in humans but in the Kinkajou.

Appendix A – Other Posts in the Series on Health Information Exchanges

A Literature Review of 40 years of SNOMED

Arizona Statewide Health Information Exchange

A History of The Health Information Exchange in Pennsylvania

The Arkansas Health Information Exchange – SHARE

The California Health Information Exchange – Cal Index

Creating a Health Information Exchange in Arizona

Health Information Exchanges

Health Information Exchanges and Chronic Conditions

HIPPA and Health Information Exchanges

ICD-11 and SNOMED CT®

ICD-SNOMED-CT® Harmonisation

ICD-1 – Well…near enough

ICD-2

ICD-3

ICD-4

ICD-5

ICD-6

ICD-7

ICD-8

ICD-9

ICD-10

ICD-11

Körner Data and SNOMED: A Snapshot from 1988

Mapping ICD 9 (or 10) to SNOMED CT®

Over 1 Million Relationships: SNOMED CT ®

SNOMED CT® International Browser

Standardisation of Health Information Technology in New Zealand

Statisticians were Responsible for the Development of an International Classification of Diseases

Why Do We Need Electronic Record Systems to Talk to Each Other

Appendix B – Definition of Health Information Exchange

This is the definition of the Health Information Exchange that I use (Hersh et al, 2015)

Health information exchange (HIE), the electronic sharing of clinical information across the boundaries of health care organizations

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here

Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link.

TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link.

Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk.

Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Conflicts of Interest: *For potential conflicts of interest please see the About section.

Lipid Metabolism Explained in this Video

The Wellcome Trust have created this video on their YouTube channel illustrating the processes involved in transporting lipids around the body. The reason I have included this video here is that Apolipoprotein is a key molecule in lipid transport and Apolipoprotein E (and more specifically the E4 allele) is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s Disease. Furthermore APOE4 is described as a regulator of Alzheimer’s pathology upstream of both Tau and Amyloid in Small and Duff’s Dual Pathway Hypothesis.

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here

Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link.

TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link.

Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk.

Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Conflicts of Interest: *For potential conflicts of interest please see the About section.

 

 

SNOMED CT® Utilises the Brodmann Area Classification for Brain Regions (Updated February 15th 2017)

computer-keyboard-1380475577zzm

In previous posts, we looked at the history of SNOMED CT® and the increasing role of SNOMED CT® in healthcare systems internationally. In this series of posts, I will examine and assess the SNOMED CT® terminology and provide a broad description of the findings where necessary.

Looking at the SNOMED CT® terminology through the SNOMED CT® browser (see this post), I came across the Brodmann area terminology. This is not the only descriptive terminology used for brain regions – there is also a reference to specific neuroanatomical structures independent of the Brodmann terminology (e.g. Basal Ganglia and Capsules Structure). I have covered the Brodmann areas in previous posts (e.g. see here).

In terms of describing the Brodmann terminology, the SNOMED CT® terminology descriptor is 9 digits long and 8 levels deep in the ontological structure. As far as I could see the terminology does not include BA’s 13, 14, 15, 16, 27, 49, 50 and 51. The terminology also links to other sources.

Appendix A – Other Posts in the Series on Health Information Exchanges

A Literature Review of 40 years of SNOMED

Arizona Statewide Health Information Exchange

A History of The Health Information Exchange in Pennsylvania

The Arkansas Health Information Exchange – SHARE

The California Health Information Exchange – Cal Index

Creating a Health Information Exchange in Arizona

Health Information Exchanges

Health Information Exchanges and Chronic Conditions

HIPPA and Health Information Exchanges

ICD-11 and SNOMED CT®

ICD-SNOMED-CT® Harmonisation

ICD-1 – Well…near enough

ICD-2

ICD-3

ICD-4

ICD-5

ICD-6

ICD-7

ICD-8

ICD-9

ICD-10

ICD-11

Körner Data and SNOMED: A Snapshot from 1988

Mapping ICD 9 (or 10) to SNOMED CT®

Over 1 Million Relationships: SNOMED CT ®

SNOMED CT® International Browser

Standardisation of Health Information Technology in New Zealand

Statisticians were Responsible for the Development of an International Classification of Diseases

Why Do We Need Electronic Record Systems to Talk to Each Other

Appendix B – Definition of Health Information Exchange

This is the definition of the Health Information Exchange that I use (Hersh et al, 2015)

Health information exchange (HIE), the electronic sharing of clinical information across the boundaries of health care organizations

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here

Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link.

TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link.

Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk.

Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Conflicts of Interest: *For potential conflicts of interest please see the About section.

 

 

 

 

 

Why Communication About SNOMED CT® is Important

computer-keyboard-1380475577zzm

We looked at accessing the SNOMED CT® terminology through the SNOMED CT® browser (see this post).

Certain terms and conditions need to be accepted in order to become a sub-licensee of the  SNOMED CT® browser. Particularly relevant for writing these posts are two terms in the license. The first is that the browser is used to explore and evaluate the terminology. This fits with the purpose of these posts.

As a sub-licensee I have also agreed not to share the SNOMED CT® content. This does mean that rather than share the specific terminology, what I will do is describe the returned terminology. Without this description it is difficult to communicate about the use of this terminology.

Communication is essential at a time when this terminology has become an international standard. Clinicians benefit from clear examples and this is also needed when comparing classification systems (e.g. ICD-11). At a time where the terminology is being adopted across healthcare systems and is being used for reporting, efficient communication about the terminology and training is essential.

SNOMED CT® also promises something very significant for the future of medicine – an increasing descriptive clarity that will also facilitate research. This is why it is important to foster the conversation as early as possible but also to clarify the ‘rules’ of the conversation as effectively as possible.

Appendix A – Other Posts in the Series on Health Information Exchanges

A Literature Review of 40 years of SNOMED

Arizona Statewide Health Information Exchange

A History of The Health Information Exchange in Pennsylvania

The Arkansas Health Information Exchange – SHARE

The California Health Information Exchange – Cal Index

Creating a Health Information Exchange in Arizona

Health Information Exchanges

Health Information Exchanges and Chronic Conditions

HIPPA and Health Information Exchanges

ICD-11 and SNOMED CT®

ICD-SNOMED-CT® Harmonisation

ICD-1 – Well…near enough

ICD-2

ICD-3

ICD-4

ICD-5

ICD-6

ICD-7

ICD-8

ICD-9

ICD-10

ICD-11

Körner Data and SNOMED: A Snapshot from 1988

Mapping ICD 9 (or 10) to SNOMED CT®

Over 1 Million Relationships: SNOMED CT ®

SNOMED CT® International Browser

Standardisation of Health Information Technology in New Zealand

Statisticians were Responsible for the Development of an International Classification of Diseases

Why Do We Need Electronic Record Systems to Talk to Each Other

Appendix B – Definition of Health Information Exchange

This is the definition of the Health Information Exchange that I use (Hersh et al, 2015)

Health information exchange (HIE), the electronic sharing of clinical information across the boundaries of health care organizations

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here

Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link.

TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link.

Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk.

Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Conflicts of Interest: *For potential conflicts of interest please see the About section.

SNOMED CT® Browser

computer-keyboard-1380475577zzm

The IHTSDO international SNOMED CT® browser can be found here. There are also local extensions.

Appendix A – Other Posts in the Series on Health Information Exchanges

A Literature Review of 40 years of SNOMED

Arizona Statewide Health Information Exchange

A History of The Health Information Exchange in Pennsylvania

The Arkansas Health Information Exchange – SHARE

The California Health Information Exchange – Cal Index

Creating a Health Information Exchange in Arizona

Health Information Exchanges

Health Information Exchanges and Chronic Conditions

HIPPA and Health Information Exchanges

ICD-11 and SNOMED CT®

ICD-SNOMED-CT® Harmonisation

ICD-1 – Well…near enough

ICD-2

ICD-3

ICD-4

ICD-5

ICD-6

ICD-7

ICD-8

ICD-9

ICD-10

ICD-11

Körner Data and SNOMED: A Snapshot from 1988

Mapping ICD 9 (or 10) to SNOMED CT®

Over 1 Million Relationships: SNOMED CT ®

Standardisation of Health Information Technology in New Zealand

Statisticians were Responsible for the Development of an International Classification of Diseases

Why Do We Need Electronic Record Systems to Talk to Each Other

Appendix B – Definition of Health Information Exchange

This is the definition of the Health Information Exchange that I use (Hersh et al, 2015)

Health information exchange (HIE), the electronic sharing of clinical information across the boundaries of health care organizations

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here

Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link.

TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link.

Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk.

Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Conflicts of Interest: *For potential conflicts of interest please see the About section.