Monthly Archives: August 2013

Perspective (Updated 31.8.13)

UniverseSciency* quote that didn’t fit into a single tweet so I thought it would find a home here.

Homo Sapiens are an extant genus of the tribe Hominini of the family Hominidae of the order Primates of the class Mammalia of the phylum Chordata of the kingdom Animalia living on and around a terrestrial planet orbiting a yellow dwarf star on the periphery of a barred spiral galaxy amongst an estimated 176 billion galaxies in the observable universe 13.798 billion years after the universe expanded from a point of singularity.

*sciency – from the Urban dictionary

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

A Short Video About the Study of Prosody

Prosody is an essential feature of language. In Psychiatric assessments, prosody can give clues about illness. Professor Duane Watson gives a 60 second talk about his research as part of the 60 second science series.

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

 

Integrating Care for Older Adults

Minister for Care and Support Norman Lamb discusses some of the UK Department of Health’s plans to integrate care for older adults with long term health conditions. The address for a site for comments/feedback is shown at the end of the video.

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

The McGurk Effect – An Impressive Auditory Illusion

Mark Mitton’s video shows the McGurk Effect. Exactly the same sound is played in each sequence. The only difference is visual imagery. He is mouthing V, D and B in the three sequences. The listener then interprets the sound differently. This is a very impressive effect which tells us something significant about the way our brains work.

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Fear and Love in the Brain – A Look at the Fornix: Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 18 (Updated 27.8.13)

A Model of the Insular Cortex

In building a model of the Insular Cortex in emotions it is necessary to first look at the function of other brain regions thought to be involved in emotions. The Fornix is part of the Limbic System, receiving input from the Hippocampus. The Fornix has been suggested to have a role in fear and romantic love.

Fornix

There is a very good review by Thomas and colleagues which looks at the anatomy in health and disease. They comment on the consequences of damage to the Fornix. This pattern mirrors the impairments that result from involvement of other structures including the mamillary bodies in Korsakoff’s Syndrome (this is a syndrome which is associated with persistent excessive alcohol intake but also with insufficient dietary Thiamine intake).

There is a body of literature suggesting that the Fornix is involved in the fear response according to the context and that this fear response is dependent on the theta rhythm in the Hippocampus.

Related Resources on this Site

Developing a Model of the Insular Cortex and Emotional Regulation: Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 2: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 1

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 3: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 2

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 4: Reviewing a Model by Craig – Part 3

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 5: The Evolution of the Insular Cortex

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 6: A Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 7: The James-Lange Theory

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 8: The Cannon-Bard Thalamic Theory of Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 9: Charles Darwin on the Expression of the Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 10: The Limbic System

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 11: A Second Recap

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 12: GABA receptors and Emotions

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 13: GABA receptors and Nematode Worms

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 14: Are GABA Receptors Related to Anxiety in Humans Because Worms Wriggle?

Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 15: Another Recap

A Diversion into the Limbic System: Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 16

A Look at the Amygdala-PFC Dyad – Building a Model of the Insular Cortex – Part 17

What does the Insular Cortex Do Again?

Insular Cortex Infarction in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Stroke

The Insular Cortex and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

The Relationship of Blood Pressure to Subcortical Lesions

Pathobiology of Visceral Pain

Interoception and the Insular Cortex

A Case of Neurogenic T-Wave Inversion

Video Presentations on a Model of the Insular Cortex

MR Visualisations of the Insula

The Subjective Experience of Pain

How Do You Feel? Interoception: The Sense of the Physiological Condition of the Body

How Do You Feel – Now? The Anterior Insula and Human Awareness

Role of the Insular Cortex in the Modulation of Pain

The Insular Cortex and Frontotemporal Dementia

A Case of Infarct Connecting the Insular Cortex and the Heart

The Insular Cortex: Part of the Brain that Connects Smell and Taste?

Stuttered Swallowing and the Insular Cortex

YouTubing the Insular Cortex (Brodmann Areas 13, 14 and 52)

New Version of Video on Insular Cortex Uploaded

Contributors to the Model (links are to the posts in which contributions were made – these links may contain further links directly to the contributors)

Ann Nonimous

The Neurocritic

Psico-logica

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Do These Illusions Help Us To See Brain Waves and fMRI Study Predicts What a Person is Reading News Round-Up August 2013 4th Edition (Updated 25.8.13)

Interesting findings in a study showing correlations between blood pressure variability and cognition.

Smoking and Diabetes are risk factors that affect mortality during the 6.2 year follow-up period in this study. The study was looking at people with Schizophrenia and there is a good summary in the write-up above.

Researchers have identified ‘non-Amyloid’ forms of Dementia in Alzheimer’s Disease in up to one third of cases. While the presentation may be similar the underlying pathology is clearly different. Researchers have suggested a number of explanations. One possibility that has been raised is that the tracer compounds used for identifying plaques may be sensitive to subtle differences in Amyloid.

There is an interesting write up of research into the possible relationship between insulin and Alzheimer’s Disease.

This small study (via @Nebula63) looks at the possible relationship between Dopa agonists and habit learning and it would be interesting to see the results of further research in this area.

The project to understand protein function complements the Human Genome Project.

The most well connected online health initiatives.

This study suggests that in retirement, utilisation of free time rather than amount of time related to life quality. Researchers used quality of life instrument and interviewed 454 retirees.

There is a write-up here of how hospitals are using social media to get feedback from patients.

Neuroscience

brain.1

Researchers in this fMRI study were able to predict which letters a person was reading.

Alpha waves or not? Flickering Wheel Visual Illusion via the Neuroskeptic

One study has found altered Ventral Temporal Occipital activity in Autistic children who scored better in maths tests when compared with a control group.

This study finds that children with Autism have contagious yawning.

Identifying patterns in cognitive function with aging.

Mo Costandi has an interesting piece on the ever popular mirror neurons.

New technique separates out left and right handed molecules more easily using Palladium.

There is a brief but interesting write-up here of how the brain works on purpose or according to habit.

Changes in brain activity in the supplementary motor area during sleep correlated with motor learning.

Open Science

OPEN SCIENCE

The researchers in this study found a prevalence of 9.1-14.4% for duplicates in searches of popular life science databases.

Developing an open source map of road traffic accidents across the world.

Evolutionary Psychiatry, Evolution & Culture

Evolutionary PsychiatryHuman activity may restrict macaques use of stone tools – possible implications for how we understand evolution.

Urban animals have bigger brains than rural animals – city living boosts brain size?

Research suggests that the lowest possible temperature for life is -20c below which cellular dehydration occurs.

How did ancient humans settle in South America over 12,000 years ago and survive the world’s driest place?

The evolution (or not) of feet.

Appendix

News Round-Up 2008-2011

News Round-Up 2012

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.

Animation on Pharmacokinetics

There is a nice introductory animation to pharmacokinetics at the Handwritten Tutorials YouTube Channel. There are others in the series. The tutorial is useful for those who are new to the subject or those that would benefit from a brief refreshment of their knowledge. The introduction also includes a brief mention about pharmacodynamics.

Index: There are indices for the TAWOP site here and here Twitter: You can follow ‘The Amazing World of Psychiatry’ Twitter by clicking on this link. Podcast: You can listen to this post on Odiogo by clicking on this link (there may be a small delay between publishing of the blog article and the availability of the podcast). It is available for a limited period. TAWOP Channel: You can follow the TAWOP Channel on YouTube by clicking on this link. Responses: If you have any comments, you can leave them below or alternatively e-mail justinmarley17@yahoo.co.uk. Disclaimer: The comments made here represent the opinions of the author and do not represent the profession or any body/organisation. The comments made here are not meant as a source of medical advice and those seeking medical advice are advised to consult with their own doctor. The author is not responsible for the contents of any external sites that are linked to in this blog.