In their article on Mediterranean dietary indices, D’Alessandro and de Pergola’s descriptions include PREDIMED. I was just looking at this and it is very easy to understand and apply. Taking this as an example of a dietary index, it can be seen that there is a focus specifically on the food components of the diet and not with associated lifestyle factors. This wider context of lifestyle factors has been considered in the modern Italian Mediterranean Food Pyramid and this distinction is relevant to any critical appraisal of research studies. The authors of the above study also emphasise the importance of characterising the original diets adopted at recruitment into the seven countries study many decades ago.
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